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Sleeping is associated with a state of muscle relaxation and limited perception of environmental stimuli. The purposes and mechanisms of sleep are only partially clear and the subject of substantial ongoing research.[2] Sleep is sometimes thought to help conserve energy, though this theory is not fully adequate as it only decreases metabolism by about 5–10%.[3][4] Additionally it is observed that mammals require sleep even during the hypometabolic state of hibernation, in which circumstance it is actually a net loss of energy as the animal returns from hypothermia to euthermia in order to sleep.[5] Humans may suffer from a number of sleep disorders. These include dyssomnias (such as; insomnia, hypersomnia, and sleep apnea) and parasomnias (such as sleepwalking and REM behavior disorder; and the circadian rhythm sleep disorders). Physiology[edit] Hypnogram showing sleep cycles from midnight to 6.30 am, with deep sleep early on. Stages[edit] 30 seconds of deep (stage N3) sleep. REM sleep[edit] Related:  health

Solipsism syndrome From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Psychological condition Solipsism syndrome refers to a psychological state in which a person feels that reality is not external to their mind. Periods of extended isolation may predispose people to this condition. In particular, the syndrome has been identified as a potential concern for individuals living in outer space for extended periods of time.[1] Overview[edit] The philosophical definition of solipsism is the idea that only one's mind is sure to exist. Individuals experiencing solipsism syndrome feel reality is not 'real' in the sense of being external to their own minds. Periods of extended isolation may predispose people to solipsism syndrome. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Stress (psychological) In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. Positive stress helps improve athletic performance. Stress can be external and related to the environment,[1] but may also be created by internal perceptions that cause an individual to have anxiety or other negative emotions surrounding a situation, such as pressure, discomfort, etc., which they then deem stressful. Humans experience stress, or perceive things as threatening, when they do not believe that their resources for coping with obstacles (stimuli, people, situations, etc.) are enough for what the circumstances demand. A very much overlooked side of stress is its positive adaptations.[2] Positive psychological stress can lead to motivation and challenge instead of anxiety. Selye proposed that there are four variations of stress.[4] On one axis, there is good stress (eustress) and bad stress (distress).

Silliness From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Funny or ludicrous behaviour Psychology[edit] In "The Art of Roughhousing", Anthony DeBenedet and Larry Cohen argue that "wild play" between a child and a parent can foster "joy, love and a deeper connection"; among the actions they suggest is for the parent to be silly and pretend to fall over.[4] Michael Christianson from New York’s Big Apple Circus "became so interested in the healing qualities of physical comedy that he quit his job"..." In the United States and Mexico, the US practical joke group Improv Everywhere has created an 'international celebration of silliness' by asking commuters to board the New York and Mexico City subways without trousers on a specific day.[6] In the circus[edit] In the circus, one of the roles that clowns play is engaging in silliness. Quotes[edit] C. See also[edit] References[edit]

File:Exercise zones.png Sublimation (psychology) Psychological defense mechanism Projection is a mental process also introduced by Freud in which people attribute to others what is on their mind. An example of this would be if an individual is frustrated and angry, and assume that other people are feeling that type of way towards them as well. Although superficially valid, with anecdotal examples from non-psychologists of civilizations at large and specific great achievers repressing sexual urges (e.g. C. In the same article, Jung went on to suggest that unconscious processes became dangerous only to the extent that people repress them. This differs fundamentally from Freud's view of the concept.

Aerobic exercise Cardio. Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.[1] Aerobic literally means "living in air",[2] and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism.[3] Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.[1] The intensity should be between 60 and 85% of maximum heart rate. When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular/aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running/jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking, according to the first extensive research on aerobic exercise, conducted in the 1960s on over 5,000 U.S. Air Force personnel by Dr. Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise[edit] Fox and Haskell formula showing the split between aerobic (light orange) and anaerobic (dark orange) exercise and heart rate. Criticisms[edit]

Repressive desublimation Repressive desublimation is a term first coined by philosopher and sociologist Herbert Marcuse in his 1964 work One-Dimensional Man, that refers to the way in which, in advanced industrial society (capitalism), "the progress of technological rationality is liquidating the oppositional and transcending elements in the “higher culture.”[1] In other words, where art was previously a way to represent "that which is" from "that which is not,"[2] capitalist society causes the "flattening out"[3] of art into a commodity incorporated into society itself. As Marcuse put it in 'One-Dimensional Man, "The music of the soul is also the music of salesmanship." By offering instantaneous, rather than mediated gratifications,[4] repressive desublimation was considered by Marcuse to remove the energies otherwise available for a social critique; and thus to function as a conservative force under the guise of liberation. Origins and influence[edit] Subsequent developments[edit] Criticism[edit] See also[edit]

Wired 15.01: My 4-Week Quest: Be Smarter Everyone wants a better body, a sharper mind, or both. But how? To find the answer, Wired sent writers on three different challenges: For one month, do everything possible (and legal) to run faster, get smarter, or shoot straighter. And keep a diary. By Joshua GreenPage 1 of 1 THERE COMES A TIME IN EVERYONE'S life – usually past age 30 and just after you've done something boneheaded like pour coffee on your cereal – when the thought hits you: "I wish I were smarter." Story Tools Story Images Click thumbnails for full-size image: WEEK ONE: I begin my experiment by playing Brain Age, a Nintendo DS game based on the research of Japanese neuroscientist Ryuta Kawashima. I start a regimen of Brain Age training and consult several neuroscientists about how to jump-start my tired noggin. On the advice of Charles Czeisler, a professor of sleep medicine at Harvard Medical School, I start getting more shut-eye. WEEK TWO: More lifestyle changes. I also learn (more) about the wonders of coffee.

Superiority complex From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Psychological defense mechanism articulated by Alfred Adler Superiority complex is a term coined by Alfred Adler (1870-1937) in the early 1900s, as part of his school of individual psychology. A superiority complex is a defense mechanism that develops over time to help a person cope with feelings of inferiority.[1][2] Individuals with this complex typically come across as supercilious, haughty, and disdainful toward others. They may treat others in an imperious, overbearing, and even aggressive manner.[3][4] In everyday usage, the term "superiority complex" is used to refer to an overly high opinion of oneself. Alfred Adler[edit] Alfred Adler was the first to use the term superiority complex. While Adler considered what he refers to in his writing as striving for superiority was a universal of human nature,[5] he thought sound-minded individuals do not strive for personal superiority over others, rather for personal ambition and success through work.

Fitness-Tipps : Die zehn goldenen Regeln für Jogging-Einsteiger - Nachrichten Gesundheit Artikel per E-Mail empfehlen Die zehn goldenen Regeln für Jogging-Einsteiger Achim Achilles und die "Welt" beantworten hier die zehn wichtigsten Fragen zum Laufen. Mehr müssen Sie zu Beginn nicht wissen. Achim Achilles und die "Welt" beantworten hier die zehn wichtigsten Fragen zum Laufen. Worauf muss ich achten, wenn ich anfange zu laufen? Die erste Devise lautet: Nicht übertreiben. Mit wie vielen Minuten soll ich anfangen? Jede Minute zählt. Wie schnell soll ich laufen? Eine Faustregel lautet: Solange Sie in der Lage sind, mehrere Sätze hintereinander zu sprechen, laufen Sie in ihrem Wohlfühl-Tempo. Muss ich mich aufwärmen und dehnen? Für Jogger mit geringem Tempo ist das Aufwärmen kein Muss, es erleichtert aber den Einstieg. Welche Ausrüstung brauche ich? Wer will, kann viele hundert Euro ausgeben. Soll ich morgens oder abends laufen? Genauso wie es Langschläfer und Frühaufsteher gibt, gibt es auch Morgen- und Abendläufer. Was soll ich essen und trinken? Soll ich meinen Puls messen?

Repetition compulsion Psychological phenomenon in which a person reenacts to relive an event or its circumstances Repetition compulsion is the unconscious tendency of a person to repeat a traumatic event or its circumstances. This may take the form of symbolically or literally re-enacting the event, or putting oneself in situations where the event is likely to occur again. Repetition compulsion can also take the form of dreams in which memories and feelings of what happened are repeated, and in cases of psychosis, may even be hallucinated. As a "key component in Freud's understanding of mental life, 'repetition compulsion' ... describes the pattern whereby people endlessly repeat patterns of behaviour which were difficult or distressing in earlier life".[1] Freud[edit] Beyond the Pleasure Principle[edit] Along the way, however, Freud had in addition considered a variety of more purely psychological explanations for the phenomena of the repetition compulsion which he had observed. Later formulations[edit]

Reminder ideas for your goals Here are some ways to remind yourself to go for a walk, eat more fruit, drink more water, or follow through with any other goal you set for yourself. It’s easy to forget to do these things once you get busy with your regular daily routine, especially if it’s a new behavior. Reminders can help interrupt the ‘autopilot mode’ of your day and help you achieve your goal. Use related objects If your goal is to drink more water, keep water bottles at your desk and around your house.If your goal is to eat more fruit, keep fruit visible on your desk, on the top shelf of your fridge, and on your kitchen counter. (healthy kitchen tips)If your goal is to go for a walk in the morning, keep your walking shoes in front of your bedroom door so you have to walk over them as you leave the room. Write on post it notes: Write your goal on post-it notes and put them in places you’ll see throughout the day. 35+ places to keep reminders Upload pictures Set alarms Schedule appointments Send messages Ask people

Relaxation (psychology) Emotional state of low tension and an absence of arousal Although stress levels vary across society, the fact remains that stress can be detrimental to one's health. In order to combat this stress, there have been a variety of methods developed that have been proven to reduce stress and its consequences in everyday life. Relaxation techniques used in therapy by a certified counselor or therapist could include any of the previous techniques discussed. Herbert Benson, a professor at the medical school at Harvard University, has proposed in his book The Relaxation Response a mechanism of the body that counters the fight-or-flight response. A quiet environment to help focusA mental device to help keep attention constant (a sound or word said repeatedly)A positive attitude to avoid getting upset over failed attemptsA comfortable position Autogenics was invented by Dr. Weiten, Wayne; McCann, Doug (2013).

If You Are Fit, You Can Take It Easy Pamplemousse/Getty Images New Year’s resolutions tend to war with wintertime malaise. Resolution urges you to work out. Malaise suggests that you linger in bed. But there’s good news for those of us torn between these impulses. The most sobering of the recent studies, published last month in The British Journal of Sports Medicine, looked at a large group of retired elite male athletes, most now in their 50s. Similarly, although in a more compressed time frame, a study published earlier this year found that when a group of world-class kayakers completely quit training (at the end of a competitive season), they rapidly lost strength and endurance. In other words, being almost completely inactive, whether for a short or prolonged period of time, inexorably de-tones muscles and compromises health. But there is a loophole. The researchers then randomly assigned the volunteers to different groups for the next eight months. There are caveats to these encouraging findings, of course.