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Critical Reasoning for Beginners

Critical Reasoning for Beginners
Related:  Study Skills(Critical) reading

Searching for information Using appropriate and relevant information sources will help to strengthen the quality of your work and independent research. To find good quality academic information it is essential that you know the best resources to search within, and use appropriate search techniques. Using your module reading lists Most modules at the University of Leeds have a reading list to help you find out more about the subject. Reading lists contain books and journal articles recommended by tutors for a particular module and are a good starting point for finding good quality relevant information. Find your reading list. Understand your reading list It can sometimes be difficult to understand the references in reading lists. A book reference contains: author(s) date published title (often in bold or italics) place of publication and sometimes the name of the publisher. It will look something like this: Lewis, D. and Allan, B. 2005. A book chapter reference contains: It will look like: El Gharras, H. 2009.

How to Criticize with Kindness: Philosopher Daniel Dennett on the Four Steps to Arguing Intelligently By Maria Popova “In disputes upon moral or scientific points,” Arthur Martine counseled in his magnificent 1866 guide to the art of conversation, “let your aim be to come at truth, not to conquer your opponent. So you never shall be at a loss in losing the argument, and gaining a new discovery.” Of course, this isn’t what happens most of the time when we argue, both online and off, but especially when we deploy the artillery of our righteousness from behind the comfortable shield of the keyboard. That form of “criticism” — which is really a menace of reacting rather than responding — is worthy of Mark Twain’s memorable remark that “the critic’s symbol should be the tumble-bug: he deposits his egg in somebody else’s dung, otherwise he could not hatch it.” Daniel Dennett (b. If only the same code of conduct could be applied to critical commentary online, particularly to the indelible inferno of comments.

Getting started with EndNote | EndNote support | Library | University of Leeds EndNote is a tool that helps you to collect and store all the references you have found from different sources. You can use EndNote to insert and format in-text citations and bibliographies within Microsoft Word documents. This guide will help you to create and manage an EndNote library, export and enter references, and use EndNote to insert citations and a bibliography. Download a print version of a guide to using EndNote (PDF) EndNote is available on all University cluster PCs and accessible off-campus via Desktop Anywhere. You can also install EndNote on your personal computer or laptop by clicking on EndNote in the IT Shop. Watch our training videos Take a look at our training videos for EndNote. Top tips for using EndNote Here are our top tips for using EndNote: Create one library to keep all your references in the same place. Further help If you would like a more comprehensive guide, download the full EndNote X9 user manual (PDF).

«Ключ к счастливой старости» Серия репортажей и интервью о том, как материально обеспечиваются пожилые люди в странах с разными политическими, экономическими и социальными укладами. В России сейчас активно обсуждается проект пенсионной реформы, предполагающий, в частности, повышение пенсионного возраста и другие меры, которые, по мысли авторов проекта, должны обеспечить россиянам достойную старость. Создание гибкой и эффективной пенсионной системы – чрезвычайно сложная задача, причем не только для России, но и для высокоразвитых стран, особенно учитывая нынешнюю демографическую ситуацию в мире. Впрочем, материальное обеспечение пожилых людей зависит не только от размера пенсий, но и от семейного уклада, национальных традиций, политических особенностей того или иного государства. Радио Свобода предлагает вашему вниманию серию материалов, посвященных тому, как в странах с разным социальным и политическим укладом обеспечивается жизнь пожилых людей. Пенсионный педантизм Купить домик в Бодруме Старость на обочине реформ

Note making explained This guide is about why we make notes, how to make effective notes from lectures and reading, and describes a variety of note-making techniques. Note making is not just about writing down everything you hear or read. It is a process of reviewing, connecting and synthesising ideas from your lectures or reading. Making notes helps you to: stay active and engaged during your lectures, reading and revision understand what you are learning and clarify your thinking be selective and identify key ideas remember the material organise your ideas and make connections plan and structure written assignments review and revise before exams. You can also complete our note making tutorial, which contains guidance and activities that will help you to reflect on your current approach to taking and making notes, and suggestions for how to make your notes more meaningful and useful. What your notes should contain All good notes should contain: Sometimes poor note taking can lead to unintentional plagiarism.

Boatos triunfam no Facebook A Internet colocou a nossa disposição uma grande quantidade de informação e nos deu a possibilidade de comprovar em poucos segundos a maior parte das afirmações que lemos. Isso não beneficiou, entretanto, a difusão de informações verdadeiras. Uma análise recente mostrou que alguns boatos, como a relação entre as vacinas e o autismo, a possibilidade de que estarmos sendo envenenados com produtos químicos com intenções escusas ou a existência de um Governo alienígena escondido, têm tanta repercussão em redes como o Facebook quanto a mais legítima informação publicada nos veículos de comunicação. Os autores do estudo mencionado, liderado por Walter Quattrociocchi, da Universidade do Nordeste de Boston (EUA), tentaram analisar também as diferenças entre os grupos que consomem a informação convencional e os que preferem as fontes alternativas. Em um novo trabalho, mostram que existe uma importante polarização entre os dois grupos.

How to Use Easy Short Stories to Improve Your English You can use your English to learn about other people’s lives, study history, experience new cultures and explore new places. And you can do this without traveling anywhere! All you need is a great story. You probably already know that, in order to improve your English, you need to get some real-life practice. Even better are easy English short stories. Short stories will expose you to the English vocabulary you’re learning in a more natural format, giving you a chance to see the words in context and remember them forever. Read on to learn what short stories are and how they can help you with your English learning. So, What’s a Short Story? A short story is a short piece of fiction (made-up story). Short stories began to be published in magazines in the 19th century. Many American writers such as Edgar Allan Poe and Washington Irving wrote short pieces that are now considered to be classics. The Types of English Short Stories There are many different types of short stories. Try this. Review

How Was Your Week with Julie Klausner On this episode of HWYW, music legend RICKIE LEE JONES talks to Julie about the messages girls can get from billboards, the barbed blessing of working with a producer whose opinion you trust, and her horse, Cinderella. What a treat to chat with Ms. Jones! This is a huge deal. Then, author KAMBRI CREWS is here to discuss her fascinating new memoir, BURN DOWN THE GROUND. Kambri is the daughter of two deaf adults, and her dad is currently incarcerated in a Texas prison. I also have to mention that there's a pretty incredible connection between Kambri and Rickie because Kambri, as she mentions in her interview, used to work at Chuck E. Also, the seductive quality of a certain volume of the encyclopedia! A show that is neither to be missed nor to be underestimated!

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Como entrar em desacordo e argumentar de maneira intelectualmente honesta - Bule Voador Editor: Francisco Boni Autor: Paul Graham* A internet transformou a escrita em conversação. Há vinte anos, escritores escreviam e leitores liam. O resultado é que há muito mais divergências acontecendo, e você pode medir isso pelas palavras e respostas por aí. Se nós vamos entrar em desacordo mais vezes, então nós deveríamos tomar cuidado com isso. Essa é a forma mais baixa de desacordo e provavelmente a mais comum. “vc é uma bicha!!!” Mas é mais importante perceber que uma forma mais articulada de xingamento também tem o mesmo peso. “O autor é pedante e o artigo é horrívelmente construído.” não é nada além de uma versão pretensiosa de “vc é uma bicha!!!”. Um ataque ad hominem não é tão fraco quanto um simples xingamento. “Claro que ele diz isso. Isso não refutaria o argumento do autor, mas pode pelo menos parecer relevante para este caso. Nesse nível superior começamos a ver respostas ligadas diretamente ao conteúdo do texto, ao invés de serem ligadas ao autor.