Göbekli Tepe The function of the structures is not yet clear. The most common opinion, shared by excavator Klaus Schmidt, is that they are early neolithic sanctuaries. Discovery The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1963. In 1994, Klaus Schmidt, now of the German Archaeological Institute, who had previously been working at Nevalı Çori, was looking for another site to lead a dig. The following year, he began excavating there in collaboration with the Şanlıurfa Museum. Dating View of site and excavation The imposing stratigraphy of Göbekli Tepe attests to many centuries of activity, beginning at least as early as the epipaleolithic, or Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), in the 10th millennium BC. There are a number of radiocarbon dates (presented with one standard deviation errors and calibrations to BCE): The Hd samples are from charcoal in the lowest levels of the site and would date the active phase of occupation. Plateau
Göbekli Tepe Bluestonehenge "Bluestonehenge" or "Bluehenge" is a prehistoric henge and stone circle monument that was discovered by the Stonehenge Riverside Project about 1 mile (1.6 km) south-east of Stonehenge in Wiltshire , England . All that currently remains of the site is the ditch of the henge and a series of stone settings, none of which is visible above ground. The site was excavated in August 2008 and again in August 2009 and is considered to be an important find by archaeologists . [ 1 ] Full details of the discovery were published in the 2010 January / February edition of British Archaeology . [ 2 ] Initial findings [ edit ] Bluestonehenge digital reconstruction - oval configuration. The monument has been tentatively dated to between about 3000 and 2400 BC, although radiocarbon dating of antler tools found at the site has only provided an approximate date of 2469 to 2286 BC for the dismantling of the stones. Context [ edit ] The henge is located beside the River Avon in West Amesbury . See also [ edit ]
Millau Viaduct The Millau Viaduct (French: le Viaduc de Millau, IPA: [vjadyk də mijo]) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. History Problems with traffic on the route from Paris to Spain along the stretch passing through the Tarn valley near the town of Millau, during the summer when the roads became jammed with holiday traffic, required construction of a bridge to span the valley. The first plans were discussed in 1987 by CETE, and by October 1991, the decision was made to build a high crossing of the Tarn River by a structure of around 2,500 m (8,200 ft). In July 1996, the jury decided in favour of a cable-stayed design with multiple spans, as proposed by the Sogelerg consortium (Michel Virlogeux and Norman Foster). Possible routes Routes of the four projects of the A75 autoroute around Millau In initial studies, four options were examined: Choosing the definitive route Choice of technical design Contractors
How and why was Stonehenge built? MOVING THE STONES click photo for enlargement The fact that Stonehenge was not built overnight does not in any way diminish the scale of the undertaking. But how could this have been achieved by a Neolithic society? Given the sheer size and weight of the stones, what ingenious devices were employed? And what of the stones? The technology was staggering. STONEHENGE FORETOLD THE SEASONS click photo for enlargement As to the purpose of Stonehenge, again we can only surmise. STONEHENGE FORETOLD THE TIME click photo for enlargement To validate this, we must look at the society of the time. → Bradshaw Foundation
101 Facts About Newgrange - Construction of Newgrange 21 Newgrange mound should be properly referred to as a cairn, because it consists of water-rolled pebbles, each of which is between 6 to 9 inches across. 22 The entire mound contains an estimated 200,000 tonnes of material, and it has been estimated construction would have taken about 30 years using a workforce of about 300. 23 It is not known with any certainty how the larger stones which form the kerb and passage and chamber of Newgrange were brought to the site. Many of these stone slabs, 550 in number, were collected from where they had been lying in the landscape. Because many of the stones were found to be weathered, it is believed they were not quarried, so there would have been a huge logistical task in finding suitable boulders dotted throughout the landscape. 24 Because Newgrange sits atop a ridge, many of the large slabs would have needed to be brought uphill, again suggesting a highly organised community was behind its construction. 25 Michael J.
Newgrange Newgrange (Irish: Sí an Bhrú) is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, about one kilometre north of the River Boyne. It was built about 3200 BC, during the Neolithic period, which makes it older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. Newgrange is a large circular mound with a stone passageway and chambers inside. The mound has a retaining wall at the front and is ringed by 'kerbstones' engraved with artwork. There is no agreement about what the site was used for, but it has been speculated that it had religious significance – it is aligned with the rising sun and its light floods the chamber on the winter solstice. After its initial use, Newgrange was sealed and it remained so for several millennia, later appearing in Irish mythology and folklore. Physical description The mound and passage tomb Cross section sketch of the passage Art Entrance stone with megalithic art. History Construction and burials Newgrange Purpose
Göbekli Tepe By Charles C. Mann Photograph by Vincent J. Musi Every now and then the dawn of civilization is reenacted on a remote hilltop in southern Turkey. The reenactors are busloads of tourists—usually Turkish, sometimes European. Before them are dozens of massive stone pillars arranged into a set of rings, one mashed up against the next. At the time of Göbekli Tepe's construction much of the human race lived in small nomadic bands that survived by foraging for plants and hunting wild animals. Archaeologists are still excavating Göbekli Tepe and debating its meaning. At first the Neolithic Revolution was viewed as a single event—a sudden flash of genius—that occurred in a single location, Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now southern Iraq, then spread to India, Europe, and beyond. After a moment of stunned quiet, tourists at the site busily snap pictures with cameras and cell phones. Inches below the surface the team struck an elaborately fashioned stone.
Timeline of project management Timeline of project management - there is a general understanding that the history of modern project management started around 1950. Until 1900, projects were generally managed by creative architects and engineers themselves, among those, for example, Christopher Wren, Thomas Telford and Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Early civilizations 2570 BC Great pyramid of Giza completed. Some records remain of how the work was managed: e.g. there were managers of each of the four faces of the pyramid, responsible for their completion (subproject managers).208 BC The first major construction of the Great Wall of China. 15th - 19th century Christopher Wren (1632–1723) was a 17th-century English designer, astronomer, geometer, mathematician-physicist and one of the greatest English architects in history. 20th century 1910s The Gantt chart developed by Henry Laurence Gantt (1861–1919) 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 21st century See also List of project management topics References