Göbekli Tepe The function of the structures is not yet clear. The most common opinion, shared by excavator Klaus Schmidt, is that they are early neolithic sanctuaries. Discovery The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1963. In 1994, Klaus Schmidt, now of the German Archaeological Institute, who had previously been working at Nevalı Çori, was looking for another site to lead a dig. The following year, he began excavating there in collaboration with the Şanlıurfa Museum. Dating View of site and excavation The imposing stratigraphy of Göbekli Tepe attests to many centuries of activity, beginning at least as early as the epipaleolithic, or Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), in the 10th millennium BC. There are a number of radiocarbon dates (presented with one standard deviation errors and calibrations to BCE): The Hd samples are from charcoal in the lowest levels of the site and would date the active phase of occupation. Plateau
10 Incredible Architectural Wonders of The Ancient World The science and art of designing and constructing buildings and other physical structures has been of man’s interest since his very beginning. Architectural works have cultural rooting and symbolize the thinking of the society. When we look at the constructions of old days, we see wonders built by men with no technology. These wonders built after dedicated efforts of decades stand as a symbol of admiration and amazement. I have listed out a few of them. 10. Coral Castle, Florida, America Source Source Source Source Source Source Coral Castle was designed and built by Edward Leedskalnin, a 5 Feet tall man, weighing 100 pounds and suffering from tuberculosis. 9. The Great Wall of China, China Source Source The Great Wall of China is the largest construction ever built by man. 8. Taj Mahal, Agra, India Source Taj Mahal described as “A tear drop on the cheek of time” by Rabindranath Tagore is a finest example of Turkish, Persian and Mughal architecture. 7. 6. Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt Source
Göbekli Tepe Eshnunna Coordinates: 33°29′3″N 44°43′42″E / 33.48417°N 44.72833°E / 33.48417; 44.72833 Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia. Although situated in the Diyala Valley north-east of Sumer proper, the city nonetheless belonged securely within the Sumerian cultural milieu. The tutelary deity of the city was Tishpak (Tišpak). History Occupied from the Jemdet Nasr period about 3000 BC, Eshnunna was a major city during the Early Dynastic period. After rising to prominence as an independent state in the early second millennium, during the time of Shamshi-Adad, Eshnunna was occupied by Elam, then conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon in the 38th year of his reign, and absorbed within the Old Babylonian Empire (sometimes called the First Babylonian Dynasty). Archaeology In the late 1990s, Iraqi archaeologists worked at Tell Asmar. Laws of Eshnunna Square Temple of Abu Notes
Bluestonehenge "Bluestonehenge" or "Bluehenge" is a prehistoric henge and stone circle monument that was discovered by the Stonehenge Riverside Project about 1 mile (1.6 km) south-east of Stonehenge in Wiltshire , England . All that currently remains of the site is the ditch of the henge and a series of stone settings, none of which is visible above ground. The site was excavated in August 2008 and again in August 2009 and is considered to be an important find by archaeologists . [ 1 ] Full details of the discovery were published in the 2010 January / February edition of British Archaeology . [ 2 ] Initial findings [ edit ] Bluestonehenge digital reconstruction - oval configuration. The monument has been tentatively dated to between about 3000 and 2400 BC, although radiocarbon dating of antler tools found at the site has only provided an approximate date of 2469 to 2286 BC for the dismantling of the stones. Context [ edit ] The henge is located beside the River Avon in West Amesbury . See also [ edit ]
Iron pillar of Delhi The iron pillar of Delhi The Iron Pillar located in Delhi, India, is a 7 m (23 ft) column in the Qutb complex, notable for the rust-resistant composition of the metals used in its construction. The pillar has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists and has been called "a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths" because of its high resistance to corrosion. The corrosion resistance results from an even layer of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate forming on the high phosphorus content iron, which serves to protect it from the effects of the local Delhi climate. Description The Iron pillar stands within the courtyard of Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque Text and translation of the inscription in English at the site The height of the pillar, from the top of its capital to the bottom of its base, is 7.21 m (23.7 ft), 1.12 m (3 ft 8 in) of which is below ground. A fence was erected around the pillar in 1997 in response to damage caused by visitors. Original location R.
Millau Viaduct The Millau Viaduct (French: le Viaduc de Millau, IPA: [vjadyk də mijo]) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. History Problems with traffic on the route from Paris to Spain along the stretch passing through the Tarn valley near the town of Millau, during the summer when the roads became jammed with holiday traffic, required construction of a bridge to span the valley. The first plans were discussed in 1987 by CETE, and by October 1991, the decision was made to build a high crossing of the Tarn River by a structure of around 2,500 m (8,200 ft). In July 1996, the jury decided in favour of a cable-stayed design with multiple spans, as proposed by the Sogelerg consortium (Michel Virlogeux and Norman Foster). Possible routes Routes of the four projects of the A75 autoroute around Millau In initial studies, four options were examined: Choosing the definitive route Choice of technical design Contractors
31 Architectural Wonders of the Ancient World Have you ever wondered what unknown stories might lie behind the relics of ancient civilizations? Here are 31 of the most impressive—and yet often still mysterious—architectural wonders from the distant past. They include the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Egyptian Labyrinth, Easter Island, and more. It all comes from the Amazeing Art: Wonders of the Ancient World book, which contains 31 mazes and essays. ) to "get lost". The Megalith Builders Gigantiga and the Megalithic Temples on Malta 4th to 3rd millennium BC This Mediterranean island was home to a complex stone-age civilization that disappeared just as the Egyptians began building the pyramids. The Enigmas of Stonehenge 3rd to 2nd millennium BC One of the oldest and most mysterious archaeological sites in the world. The Mysteries of Egypt The Lost Egyptian Labyrinth 20th century BC This mysterious monument contained thousands of rooms and a fantastic maze hidden inside a pyramid decorated with colossal figures. Parthenon Maze
How and why was Stonehenge built? MOVING THE STONES click photo for enlargement The fact that Stonehenge was not built overnight does not in any way diminish the scale of the undertaking. But how could this have been achieved by a Neolithic society? Given the sheer size and weight of the stones, what ingenious devices were employed? And what of the stones? The technology was staggering. STONEHENGE FORETOLD THE SEASONS click photo for enlargement As to the purpose of Stonehenge, again we can only surmise. STONEHENGE FORETOLD THE TIME click photo for enlargement To validate this, we must look at the society of the time. → Bradshaw Foundation