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Pedagogy (/ˈpɛdəɡɒdʒi/, /ˈpɛdəɡoʊdʒi/, or /ˈpɛdəɡɒɡi/[1][2]) is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of education; or the study and practice of 'how best to teach'. Its aims range from the general (full development of the human being via liberal education) to the narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition of specific skills). For example, Paulo Freire referred to his method of teaching people as "critical pedagogy". Etymology[edit] The word comes from the Greek παιδαγωγία (paidagōgia) from παιδαγωγός (paidagōgos),in which παῖς (país, genitive παιδός, paidos) means "child" and ἄγω (ágō) means "lead"; literally translated "to lead the child".[6] Hostile implications in the word are at least from the time of Pepys (1650s). Academic degrees[edit] An academic degree, Ped. Pedagogues[edit] Douris Man with wax tablet The word pedagogue actually relates to the slave who escorts Roman children to school. References[edit] Further reading[edit] Related:  Montainge

Middle French Middle French (French: le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.[2] It is a period of transition during which: the French language became clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages, which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of Old French (l’ancien français)the French language was imposed as the official language of the kingdom of France in place of Latin and other Oïl and Occitan languagesthe literary development of French prepared the vocabulary and grammar for the Classical French (le français classique) spoken in the 17th and 18th centuries. History[edit] The most important change found in Middle French is the complete disappearance of the noun declension system (already underway for centuries). There is no longer a distinction between nominative and oblique forms of nouns, and plurals are indicated simply with an s. Literature[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

Discipline To think good thoughts requires effort. This is one of the things that discipline – training – is about. Use of the word discipline[edit] Children being educated to use public litter bins is a form of disciplinary education that is expected by some societies. Discipline is a moral obligation among many groups of people. In the military, discipline regards the efforts made by superiors to punish the serviceperson. History[edit] Disciplinarians have been involved in many societies throughout history. Common Techniques[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Grote, Dick (2006).

José Saramago More than two million copies of Saramago's books have been sold in Portugal alone and his work has been translated into 25 languages.[4][5] A proponent of libertarian communism,[6] Saramago criticized institutions such as the Catholic Church, the European Union and the International Monetary Fund. An atheist, he defended love as an instrument to improve the human condition. In 1992, the Government of Portugal under Prime Minister Aníbal Cavaco Silva ordered the removal of The Gospel According to Jesus Christ from the Aristeion Prize's shortlist, claiming the work was religiously offensive. Disheartened by this political censorship of his work,[7] Saramago went into exile on the Spanish island of Lanzarote, upon which he resided until his death in 2010.[8][9] Saramago was a founding member of the National Front for the Defense of Culture in Lisbon in 1992, and co-founder with Orhan Pamuk, of the European Writers' Parliament (EWP). Early and middle life[edit] Death and funeral[edit]

Michel Onfray French writer and philosopher (born 1959) Onfray is often regarded as being left-wing;[4][5] however, some observers have stated that he harbours right-wing tendencies.[6][7][8][9] He has become appreciated by some far-right circles, notably with his sovereignist magazine Front populaire.[10][11] Life[edit] Born in Argentan to a family of Norman farmers, Onfray was sent to a weekly Catholic boarding school in Giel from ages 10 to 14.[12] This was a solution many parents in France adopted at the time when they lived far from the village school or had working hours that made it too hard or too expensive to transport their children to and from school daily. His book Le crépuscule d'une idole : L'affabulation freudienne (The Twilight of an Idol: The Freudian Confabulation), published in 2010, has been the subject of considerable controversy in France because of its criticism of Sigmund Freud. Philosophy[edit] Onfray writes that there is no philosophy without self-psychoanalysis. Hedonism[edit]

Albert Camus French author and journalist Albert Camus ( kam-OO, kə-MOO, French: [albɛʁ kamy] ( Philosophically, Camus's views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism, a movement reacting against the rise of nihilism. Life[edit] Early years and education[edit] A 20th-century postcard of the University of Algiers Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in a working-class neighbourhood in Mondovi (present-day Dréan), in French Algeria. Under the influence of his teacher Louis Germain, Camus gained a scholarship in 1924 to continue his studies at a prestigious lyceum (secondary school) near Algiers. Formative years[edit] In 1934, aged 20, Camus was in a relationship with Simone Hié. Camus joined the French Communist Party (PCF) in early 1935. World War II, Resistance and Combat[edit] Soon after Camus moved to Paris, the outbreak of World War II began to affect France. Post-World War II[edit] Death[edit] Albert Camus's gravestone Literary career[edit] Political stance[edit] Philosophy[edit]

Gore Vidal As a political commentator and essayist, Vidal's principal subject was the history of the United States and its society, especially how the militaristic foreign policy of the National Security State reduced the country to decadent empire.[4] His political and cultural essays were published in The Nation, the New Statesman, the New York Review of Books, and Esquire magazines. As a public intellectual, Gore Vidal's topical debates on sex, politics, and religion with other public intellectuals and writers occasionally became continual quarrels with the likes of William F. Buckley Jr. and Norman Mailer. Early life[edit] Gore Vidal was born Eugene Louis Vidal in the cadet hospital of the U.S. Eugene Luther Vidal Sr. was director (1933–37) of the Commerce Department's Bureau of Air Commerce during the Roosevelt Administration, and also was the great love of the aviator Amelia Earhart.[18][19] At the U.S. Career[edit] Writer[edit] Fiction[edit] Non-fiction[edit] We are all bisexual to begin with.

Socratic method Type of cooperative argumentative dialogue The Socratic method (also known as method of Elenchus or Socratic debate) is a form of argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions. In modified forms, it is employed today in a variety of pedagogical contexts. Development[edit] In the second half of the 5th century BCE, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view. Socrates began to engage in such discussions with his fellow Athenians after his friend from youth, Chaerephon, visited the Oracle of Delphi, which asserted that no man in Greece was wiser than Socrates. Method[edit] Elenchus (Ancient Greek: ἔλεγχος, romanized: elenkhos, lit. Socrates used this claim of wisdom as the basis of moral exhortation. Scholarly debate[edit] W. Modern applications[edit] Socratic seminar[edit] Various approaches to Socratic seminar[edit] See also[edit]

Pierre Charron Pierre Charron (French pronunciation: ​[pjɛʁ ʃaʁɔ̃]; 1541 – 16 November 1603) was a French 16th-century Catholic theologian and philosopher, and a disciple and contemporary of Michel de Montaigne. Biography[edit] Pierre Charron's obituary Pierre Charron was born in Paris, one of the twenty-five children of a bookseller. He moved to the southwest of France, invited by Arnaud de Pontac, Bishop of Bazas.[2] He was appointed priest in ordinary to Marguerite de Valois, wife of Henry IV of Navarre. From 1594, he used his own name; he spent from 1594 to 1600 under the protection of Antoine Hérbrard de Saint-Sulpice,[2] Bishop of Cahors, who appointed him grand vicar and theological canon. Charron retired to Condom in 1600; he died suddenly of a stroke; his works were then receiving attention.[4][5] Works[edit] Charron first published his works anonymously. Les Trois Vérités[edit] Discours chretiens[edit] De la sagesse[edit] Views[edit] Influences Psychology Theology Politics Bibliography[edit] Works[edit]