Middle French (French: le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries. It is a period of transition during which: the French language became clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages, which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of Old French (l’ancien français)the French language was imposed as the official language of the kingdom of France in place of Latin and other Oïl and Occitan languagesthe literary development of French prepared the vocabulary and grammar for the Classical French (le français classique) spoken in the 17th and 18th centuries. History The most important change found in Middle French is the complete disappearance of the noun declension system (already underway for centuries). There is no longer a distinction between nominative and oblique forms of nouns, and plurals are indicated simply with an s. Literature Notes References
To think good thoughts requires effort. This is one of the things that discipline – training – is about. Use of the word discipline Children being educated to use public litter bins is a form of disciplinary education that is expected by some societies. Discipline is a moral obligation among many groups of people. In the military, discipline regards the efforts made by superiors to punish the serviceperson. History Disciplinarians have been involved in many societies throughout history. Common Techniques See also References Jump up ^ Grote, Dick (2006).
More than two million copies of Saramago's books have been sold in Portugal alone and his work has been translated into 25 languages. A proponent of libertarian communism, Saramago criticized institutions such as the Catholic Church, the European Union and the International Monetary Fund. An atheist, he defended love as an instrument to improve the human condition. In 1992, the Government of Portugal under Prime Minister Aníbal Cavaco Silva ordered the removal of The Gospel According to Jesus Christ from the Aristeion Prize's shortlist, claiming the work was religiously offensive. Disheartened by this political censorship of his work, Saramago went into exile on the Spanish island of Lanzarote, upon which he resided until his death in 2010. Saramago was a founding member of the National Front for the Defense of Culture in Lisbon in 1992, and co-founder with Orhan Pamuk, of the European Writers' Parliament (EWP). Early and middle life Death and funeral
French writer and philosopher (born 1959) Onfray is often regarded as being left-wing; however, some observers have stated that he harbors right-wing tendencies. He has become appreciated by some far-right circles, notably with his sovereignist magazine Front populaire. Life Born in Argentan to a family of Norman farmers, Onfray was sent to a weekly Catholic boarding school from ages 10 to 14. Onfray is an atheist and author of Traité d'Athéologie (Atheist Manifesto), which "became the number one best-selling nonfiction book in France for months when it was published in the Spring of 2005 (the word 'atheologie' Onfray borrowed from Georges Bataille and dedicated to Raoul Vaneigem who he defended freedom of speech, including holocaust denial, in Nothing is sacred, everything can be said. This book repeated its popular French success in Italy, where it was published in September 2005 and quickly soared to number one on Italy's bestseller lists
French author and journalist Albert Camus ( kam-OO, kə-MOO, French: [albɛʁ kamy] ( Philosophically, Camus's views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism, a movement reacting against the rise of nihilism. Life Early years and education A 20th-century postcard of the University of Algiers Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in a working-class neighbourhood in Mondovi (present-day Dréan), in French Algeria. Under the influence of his teacher Louis Germain, Camus gained a scholarship in 1924 to continue his studies at a prestigious lyceum (secondary school) near Algiers. Formative years In 1934, aged 20, Camus was in a relationship with Simone Hié. Camus joined the French Communist Party (PCF) in early 1935. World War II, Resistance and Combat Soon after Camus moved to Paris, the outbreak of World War II began to affect France. Post-World War II Death Albert Camus's gravestone Literary career Political stance Philosophy
As a political commentator and essayist, Vidal's principal subject was the history of the United States and its society, especially how the militaristic foreign policy of the National Security State reduced the country to decadent empire. His political and cultural essays were published in The Nation, the New Statesman, the New York Review of Books, and Esquire magazines. As a public intellectual, Gore Vidal's topical debates on sex, politics, and religion with other public intellectuals and writers occasionally became continual quarrels with the likes of William F. Buckley Jr. and Norman Mailer. Early life Gore Vidal was born Eugene Louis Vidal in the cadet hospital of the U.S. Eugene Luther Vidal Sr. was director (1933–37) of the Commerce Department's Bureau of Air Commerce during the Roosevelt Administration, and also was the great love of the aviator Amelia Earhart. At the U.S. Career Writer Fiction Non-fiction We are all bisexual to begin with.
Type of cooperative argumentative dialogue The Socratic method is a method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. The Socratic method searches for general commonly held truths that shape beliefs and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs. The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic and fact intended to help a person or group discover their beliefs about some topic, explore definitions, and characterize general characteristics shared by various particular instances. Development In the second half of the 5th century BCE, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view. Method Elenchus (Ancient Greek: ἔλεγχος, romanized: elenkhos, lit. W. Application Socratic seminar Text selection See also
Pierre Charron (French pronunciation: [pjɛʁ ʃaʁɔ̃]; 1541 – 16 November 1603) was a French 16th-century Catholic theologian and philosopher, and a disciple and contemporary of Michel de Montaigne. Biography Pierre Charron's obituary Pierre Charron was born in Paris, one of the twenty-five children of a bookseller. He moved to the southwest of France, invited by Arnaud de Pontac, Bishop of Bazas. He was appointed priest in ordinary to Marguerite de Valois, wife of Henry IV of Navarre. From 1594, he used his own name; he spent from 1594 to 1600 under the protection of Antoine Hérbrard de Saint-Sulpice, Bishop of Cahors, who appointed him grand vicar and theological canon. Charron retired to Condom in 1600; he died suddenly of a stroke; his works were then receiving attention. Works Charron first published his works anonymously. Les Trois Vérités Discours chretiens De la sagesse Views Influences Psychology Theology Politics Bibliography Works