PolarSSL The PolarSSL SSL library is a dual licensed (GPLv2 or proprietary) implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols and the respective cryptographic algorithms and support code required. Stated on the website is that PolarSSL aims to be "easy to understand, use, integrate and expand". History The PolarSSL SSL library is the official continuation fork of the XySSL SSL library. XySSL was created by the French "white hat hacker" Christophe Devine and was first released on November 1, 2006 under GPL and BSD licenses. In 2011 the Dutch government approved an integration between OpenVPN and PolarSSL, which is named OpenVPN-NL. Library Later versions of the SSL library (> PolarSSL 1.3.0) add abstraction layers for memory allocation and threading to the core "to support better integration with existing embedded operating systems". Design priorities Development Documentation The following documentation is available for developers: Automated Testing Use Platforms
Uniform resource identifier Relationship to URL and URN URIs can be classified as locators (URLs), as names (URNs), or as both. A uniform resource name (URN) functions like a person's name, while a uniform resource locator (URL) resembles that person's street address. URLs and URNs A URL is a URI that, in addition to identifying a web resource, specifies the means of acting upon or obtaining the representation: providing both the primary access mechanism, and the network "location". A URN is a URI that identifies a resource by name, in a particular namespace. Syntax Percent-encoding can add extra information to a URI. History Naming, addressing, and identifying resources URIs and URLs have a shared history. Over the next three and a half years, as the World Wide Web's core technologies of HTML (the HyperText Markup Language), HTTP, and web browsers developed, a need to distinguish a string that provided an address for a resource from a string that merely named a resource emerged.
URI scheme URI schemes should be registered with IANA, although non-registered schemes are used in practice. RFC 4395 describes the procedures for registering new URI schemes. Generic syntax Internet standard STD 66 (also RFC 3986) defines the generic syntax to be used in all URI schemes. Every URI is defined as consisting of four parts, as follows: <scheme name> : <hierarchical part> [ ? The scheme name consists of a sequence of characters beginning with a letter and followed by any combination of letters, digits, plus ("+"), period ("."), or hyphen ("-"). The hierarchical part of the URI is intended to hold identification information hierarchical in nature. The query is an optional part, separated by a question mark ("?") Semicolon: key1=value1;key2=value2;key3=value3 Ampersand: key1=value1&key2=value2&key3=value3 The fragment is an optional part separated from the front parts by a hash ("#"). Examples Use In Browsers
OpenVPN OpenVPN has been ported and embedded to several systems. For example, DD-WRT has the OpenVPN server function. SoftEther VPN, a multi-protocol VPN server, has an implementation of OpenVPN protocol. Architecture Encryption OpenVPN uses the OpenSSL library to provide encryption of both the data and control channels. Authentication OpenVPN has several ways to authenticate peers with each other. Networking OpenVPN can run over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) transports, multiplexing created SSL tunnels on a single TCP/UDP port (RFC 3948 for UDP). From 2.3.x series on, OpenVPN fully supports IPv6 as protocol of the virtual network inside a tunnel and the OpenVPN applications can also establish connections via IPv6. It has the ability to work through most proxy servers (including HTTP) and is good at working through Network address translation (NAT) and getting out through firewalls. Security Extensibility
Turtle (syntax) Turtle (Terse RDF Triple Language) is a format for expressing data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model with the syntax similar to SPARQL. RDF, in turn, represents information using "triples", each of which consists of a subject, a predicate, and an object. Each of those items is expressed as a Web URI. Turtle provides a way to group three URIs to make a triple, and provides ways to abbreviate such information, for example by factoring out common portions of URIs. < . SPARQL, the query language for RDF, uses a syntax similar to Turtle for expressing query patterns. In 2011, a working group of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) started working on an updated version of RDF, which is intended to be published along with a standardised version of Turtle. @prefix rdf: < . (Turtle examples are also valid Notation3).
Transport Layer Security Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols designed to provide communications security over a computer network. They use X.509 certificates and hence asymmetric cryptography to authenticate the counterparty with whom they are communicating, and to exchange a symmetric key. This session key is then used to encrypt data flowing between the parties. This allows for data/message confidentiality, and message authentication codes for message integrity and as a by-product, message authentication.[clarification needed] Several versions of the protocols are in widespread use in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice-over-IP (VoIP). An important property in this context is forward secrecy, so the short-term session key cannot be derived from the long-term asymmetric secret key. Description History and development Secure Network Programming Dr. Notes
OpenSSL History of the OpenSSL project The OpenSSL project was founded in 1998 to invent a free set of encryption tools for the code used on the Internet. As of 2014 two thirds of all webservers use it. The OpenSSL project management team consists of 4 Europeans. Major version releases Algorithms OpenSSL supports a number of different cryptographic algorithms: Ciphers Cryptographic hash functions Public-key cryptography (Perfect forward secrecy is supported using elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman since version 1.0.) FIPS 140-2 compliance As of December 2012[update], OpenSSL is one of two open source programs to be involved with validation under the FIPS 140-2 computer security standard by the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP). (OpenSSL itself is not validated, but a component called the OpenSSL FIPS Object Module, based on OpenSSL, was created to provide many of the same capabilities). Licensing
Notation 3 Logic Up to Design Issues An RDF language for the Semantic Web This article gives an operational semantics for Notation3 (N3) and some RDF properties for expressing logic. These properties, together with N3's extensions of RDF to include variables and nested graphs, allow N3 to be used to express rules in a web environment. This is an informal semantics in that should be understandable by a human being but is not a machine readable formal semantics. This document is aimed at a logician wanting to a reference by which to compare N3 Logic with other languages, and at the engineer coding an implementation of N3 Logic and who wants to check the detailed semantics. These properties are not part of the N3 language, but are properties which allow N3 to be used to express rules, and rules which talk about the provenance of information, contents of documents on the web, and so on. The log: namespace has functions, which have built-in meaning for CWM and other software. See also: Motivation Formal syntax
RFC 2168 - Resolution of Uniform Resource Identifiers using the Domain Name System [Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-urn-naptr] [Diff1] [Diff2] [IPR] Obsoleted by: 3401, 3402, 3403, 3404 EXPERIMENTALUpdated by: 2915 Network Working Group R. Daniel Request for Comments: 2168 Los Alamos National Laboratory Category: Experimental M. Mealling Network Solutions, Inc. June 1997 Status of this Memo =================== This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet community. RFC 2168 Resolution of URIs Using the DNS June 1997 In addition to locating resolvers, the NAPTR provides for other naming systems to be grandfathered into the URN world, provides independence between the name assignment system and the resolution protocol system, and allows multiple services (Name to Location, Name to Description, Name to Resource, ...) to be offered. RFC 2168 Resolution of URIs Using the DNS June 1997 meet the goals listed above. RFC 2168 Resolution of URIs Using the DNS June 1997 Example 2 --------- Consider a URN namespace based on MIME Content-Ids.
eMule eMule is a free peer-to-peer file sharing application for Microsoft Windows. Started in May 2002 as an alternative to eDonkey2000, eMule now connects to both the eDonkey network and the Kad network. The distinguishing features of eMule are the direct exchange of sources between client nodes, fast recovery of corrupted downloads, and the use of a credit system to reward frequent uploaders. Furthermore, eMule transmits data in zlib-compressed form to save bandwidth. eMule is coded in C++ using the Microsoft Foundation Classes. As of August 2013, it is the second most frequently downloaded project on SourceForge, with over 665 million downloads, only behind VLC media player. History The eMule project was started on May 13, 2002 by Hendrik Breitkreuz (also known as Merkur) who was dissatisfied with the original eDonkey2000 client. eMule was first released as a binary on August 4, 2002 at version 0.05a. Nodes in Kad network In new versions, a "Bad source list" was added. Low ID
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