Basidiospore Basidiomycetes form sexual spores externally from a structure called a basidium. Four basidiospores develop on appendages from each basidium. These spores serve as the main air dispersal units for the fungi. The spores are released during periods of high humidity and generally have a night-time or pre-dawn peak concentration in the atmosphere. When basidiospores encounter a favorable substrate, they may germinate, typically by forming hyphae. These hyphae grow outward from the original spore, forming an expanding circle of mycelium. General structure and shape Basidiospores are generally characterized by an attachment peg (called a hilar appendage) on its surface. Potential opportunist and Pathogen: Depend on genus. Industrial uses: Edible mushrooms are used in the food industry. Potential Toxins produced: Amanitins, monomethyl-hydrazine, muscarine, ibotenic acid, psilocybin. Basidiospores are the result of sexual reproduction and formed on a structure called the basidium.
The psychedelic mind expresses coherence and plasticity with all that is. It unifies the spiritual and material with a cosmic glue that sticks and drips with a smiley smile The psychedelic mind expresses coherence and plasticity with all that is. It unifies the spiritual and material with a cosmic glue that sticks and drips with a smiley smile. External Stimuli : www.mars-1.com, MARS 1 flickr Themes : Art Nodes : creamy, dreamy, Mario Martinez, MARS 1, Painting, psychedelic, taffy
Basidium Schematic showing a basidiomycete mushroom, gill structure, and spore-bearing basidia on the gill margins. A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic, spore-producing structure found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. The presence of basidia is one of the main characteristic features of the Basidiomycota. Basidium structure Mechanism of basidiospore discharge In most basidiomycetes, the basidiospores are ballistospores--they are forcibly discharged. Upon maturity of a basidiospore, sugars present in the cell wall begin to serve as condensation loci for water vapor in the air. Successful basidiospore discharge can only occur when there is sufficient water vapor available to condense on the spore. Evolutionary loss of forcible discharge Some basidiomycetes lack forcible discharge, although they still form basidiospores. References Ingold, C.T. 1998. External links
DMT, Moses, and the Quest for Transcendence by Cliff Pickover, Reality Carnival "DMT in the pineal glands of Biblical prophets gave God to humanity and let ordinary humans perceive parallel universes." The molecule DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine) is a psychoactive chemical that causes intense visions and can induce its users to quickly enter a completely different "environment" that some have likened to an alien or parallel universe. The transition from our world to theirs occurs with no cessation of consciousness or quality of awareness. In this environment, beings often appear who interact with the person who is using DMT. The beings appear to inhabit this parallel realm. Author Terence McKenna has used DMT and feels that, "Right here and now, one quanta away, there is raging a universe of active intelligence that is transhuman, hyperdimensional, and extremely alien... DMT is also naturally produced in small quantities in the human brain, and it has been hypothesized that DMT is produced in the pineal gland in the brain.
Basidiocarp Schematic of a typical basidiocarp, showing fruiting body, hymenium and basidia Structure Types Basidiocarps of Ramaria rugosa, a coral fungus Basidiocarps are classified into various types of growth forms based on the degree of differentiation into a stipe, pileus, and hymenophore, as well as the type of hymenophore, if present. Growth forms include: Basic divisions of Agaricomycotina were formerly based entirely upon the growth form of the mushroom. See also Ascocarp External links Evolution & Morphology in the Homobasidiomycetes: The Clade/Morphology Chart by Gary Lincoff & Michael Wood, MykoWeb, November 27, 2005." Single dose of hallucinogen may create lasting personality change Thursday, September 29, 2011 Psilocybn A single high dose of the hallucinogen psilocybin, the active ingredient in so-called "magic mushrooms," was enough to bring about a measureable personality change lasting at least a year in nearly 60 percent of the 51 participants in a new study, according to the Johns Hopkins researchers who conducted it. Lasting change was found in the part of the personality known as openness, which includes traits related to imagination, aesthetics, feelings, abstract ideas and general broad-mindedness. Changes in these traits, measured on a widely used and scientifically validated personality inventory, were larger in magnitude than changes typically observed in healthy adults over decades of life experiences, the scientists say. "Normally, if anything, openness tends to decrease as people get older," says study leader Roland R. The study participants completed two to five eight-hour drug sessions, with consecutive sessions separated by at least three weeks.
Conidium Conidia on conidiophores Conidia, sometimes termed asexual chlamydospores, or chlamydoconida  are asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus and are named after the Greek word for dust, skoni. They are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. Asexual reproduction in Ascomycetes (the Phylum Ascomycota) is by the formation of conidia, which are borne on specialized stalks called conidiophores. The terms "microconidia" and "macroconidia" are sometimes used. Conidiogenesis There are two main types of conidium development: Blastic conidiogenesis, where the spore is already evident before it separates from the conidiogenic hypha which is giving rise to it, andThallic conidiogenesis, where first a cross-wall appears and thus the created cell develops into a spore. Conidia germination A conidium may form germ tubes (germination tubes) and/or conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs) in specific conditions. Health issues
Psychedelics Can Expand Your Consciousness It might seem as though we are all separate, and individual from one another and our environment. While that may appear true and could very well be true in some ways, we are also all connected at the deepest levels of existence. When understanding this, we can look at how we operate daily and begin to ask questions: Why are we so concerned with dominating one another? Why do we strive to be better than others? Why do we chase pieces of paper so that we can have more and more things? Personally I have not done psychedelics so it cannot be completely accurate for me to say exactly what you would feel while doing them. We are all connected. “Psychedelics are illegal not because a loving government is concerned that you may jump out of a third story window. As Terrence McKenna pointed out, psychedelics can lead to vast understandings and expansive changes to ones life that would push them to begin changing how they live life.
Sporangia & Zygosporangia Home >> What fungi are >> How fungi reproduce >> Sexual reproduction >> Sporangia Among the true fungi only the Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota reproduce sexually by means of sporangia. The Chytridiomycota are themselves a diverse group of fungi. The photo at left shows a single sporangium of Chytridium sp. developing on a pollen grain of red pine floating in pond water. Sexual reproduction in the Zygomycota involves the production of zygosporangia and zygospores. The two pictures above show zygospores of Absidia spinosa, a common fungus in soil. Home >> What fungi are >> How fungi reproduce >> Sexual reproduction >> Sporangia
Bat-Killing Fungus Spreads West Researchers have detected the fungus responsible for white-nose syndrome, which decimates bat populations, in Arkansas. A little brown bat with white-nose syndrome in Greeley Mine, VermontWIKIMEDIA, US FISH AND WILFLIFE SERVICEThe fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has already killed millions of bats in the United States, has been detected as far west as Arkansas, reported BBC News. The fungus, Geomyces destructans, was found in two caves in the state, but so far there is no sign of the disease in the bat population. “These are pretty far west occurrences,” Ann Froschauer of the US Fish and Wildlife Service told the BBC. “We do have one potential site further west in western Oklahoma, but these latest cases are the most western confirmed cases to date.” WNS was first discovered in a cave in New York State in 2006 and has since swept through 22 other states and five Canadian provinces, killing almost 7 million bats along the way.
Chytridiomycota Life cycle & body plan Brief taxonomic history Habitats Ecological functions Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis The chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease of amphibians. Other parasites Chytrids mainly infect algae and other eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes. Saprobes Arguably, the most important ecological function chytrids perform is decomposition. These ubiquitous and cosmopolitan organisms are responsible for decomposition of refractory materials, such as pollen, cellulose, chitin, and keratin. There are also chytrids that live and grow on pollen by attaching threadlike structures, the called rhizoids, onto the pollen grains. This mostly occurs during asexual reproduction because the zoospores that become attached to the pollen continuously reproduce and form new chytrids that will attach to other pollen grains for nutrients. Fossil record In fictional media References