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Optogenetics: A wireless, optical router for your brain

Optogenetics: A wireless, optical router for your brain
Ready for the Bleeding Edge Science Word of the Day? Optogenetics. It’s even weirder than it sounds, too: optogenetics is the manipulation of a cell’s functions with light (usually lasers). Today, American startup Kendall Research has announced that it has made a wireless optogenetics device that the company’s founder calls “a wireless router for the brain.” To understand the importance of optogenetics, and to marvel at the magic of hooking your brain up to a network with a wireless router, we have to first look at how researchers currently investigate cell function, and thus just how groundbreakingly different the optogenetic approach is. Basically, as it stands, we have very limited control animal cells — especially brain cells. At the moment, the only real way to investigate animal cells is to knock out a function, usually by breeding a genetically engineered mutant. Now, back to the “wireless router” claim. Read more at Technology Review

Related:  Research/parasites&protocol (theories)Cyber RoboticChemistry,Biology

Natural Foods That Support Candida Cleansing and What to Avoid Candida diets are a commonly known type of diet unlike most types of diets we hear about. A candida diet is catered to someone who has an overgrowth of a type of yeast we all have living inside of us: candida albicans. Though we have multiple types of yeast colonies (well, actually hundreds), along with other types of bacteria cultures inside our digestive tracts making up our microbiome, not all of these are good yeast or good bacteria we associate with probiotics, etc. Candida is one of the yeasts that can easily take over and when it does, you suffer severe health effects that not only weaken the body but also make you miserable in the meantime.

U.S. Spies See Superhumans, Instant Cities by 2030 Artificial limbs like these could be only the beginning of man-machine interfaces, the National Intelligence Council predicts. Photo: DoD 3-D printed organs. Brain chips providing superhuman abilities. 24.1 Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds Skills to Develop To know the major classes of organic compounds and identify important functional groups. You were previously introduced to several structural units that chemists use to classify organic compounds and predict their reactivities. These functional groups, which determine the chemical reactivity of a molecule under a given set of conditions, can consist of a single atom (such as Cl) or a group of atoms (such as CO2H). The major families of organic compounds are characterized by their functional groups. Figure 24.1.1 summarizes five families introduced in earlier chapters, gives examples of compounds that contain each functional group, and lists the suffix or prefix used in the systematic nomenclature of compounds that contain each functional group.

Natural Body Healing explains how to control candida albicans Controlling Candida Albicans to Restore Balance and Well-Being By Liz Barrington, Natural Body Healing Candida albicans overgrowth or ‘thrush’ as it’s often more commonly known can affect everyone – from babies to the elderly, and is amongst the most difficult of human ailments to treat. In the developed world, this condition is much more prevalent nowadays than it was 100 years ago, primarily because of our imbalanced diets, lifestyles and over-use of antibiotics, and this situation seems to be worsening. Most people aren't even aware that they have a candida problem - until they look at the list of associated symptoms below.

When will computer hardware match the human brain? by Hans Moravec Journal of Evolution and Technology. 1998. Vol. 1 When will computer hardware match the human brain? (Received Dec. 1997) Hans Moravec ABSTRACT This paper describes how the performance of AI machines tends to improve at the same pace that AI researchers get access to faster hardware. MIT discovers the location of memories: Individual neurons Update 12/2/15: We’ve now followed up on this story: The more we learn about memory, the weirder it gets. The original continues below. MIT researchers have shown, for the first time ever, that memories are stored in specific brain cells. By triggering a small cluster of neurons, the researchers were able to force the subject to recall a specific memory. By removing these neurons, the subject would lose that memory.

Electronic brain hacks are turning insects into robotic helpers We're a long way from directly controlling human minds remotely, but recent years have seen a string of breakthroughs in hacking the minds of insects. Insect brains are probably the simplest interesting brains, as insects can perform a range of tasks (flying, smelling, carrying, etc.) with brains that have numbers of neurons orders of magnitude less than those in complex vertebrates. A fruit fly has around 100,00 neurons, compared to 85 billion in humans. So at the conjunction of neuroscience and robotics lie insects -- their tiny brains still too complex to model completely, but offering an easy way into modelling certain parts of the brain. It's how engineers from Sheffield and Sussex universities can claim they're preparing to upload the smell and sight parts of a bee's brain into a bee-like flying robot, enmeshed with human-created software to create a completely new "brain". The hope is that the bee-bot could fly in areas that other robots can't fit, like a collapsed building.

Chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" such as covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" such as Dipole-dipole interaction, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding. Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond.

Dying of Lyme disease: Case fatality rate nearly 100% If you have Lyme Neuroborreliosis you will likely succumb to it eventually if you don’t receive proper, open-ended treatment. Because the big problem is that the overwhelming majority of neuro-Lyme is misdiagnosed as something else. Example: Lyme disease (neuroborreliosis) is a common cause of ALS, but ALS as a “disease on its own” is more profitable and prestigious, so if you have ALS symptoms and test positive for Lyme, you’ll get either an ALS diagnosis only or at best a dual diagnosis ALS & Lyme. That’s just how the medical profession and the pharmaceutical symptom relieving industry works.

DARPA Cheetah breaks record for fastest legged robot By Ted Thornhill Updated: 17:24 GMT, 6 March 2012 It resembles the cat-like Decepticon Ravage, seen in the Transformers 2 movie – but this one is real! U.S engineering firm Boston Dynamics has built the world’s fastest legged robot and called it, unsurprisingly, Cheetah. In tests recently the speedy machine managed to run at 18mph, which means it would be able to outrun most humans, though it's doubtful it could keep up with Ravage... Sulli's Biology: Ch 8 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis! Even Spongebob likes it! Homeostasis takes energy. Where does it come from?Energy is the ability to do work. Organisms are doing work all the time.

Lyme Disease on Plum Island: Fringe Conspiracy Theory or Government Cover-up? By Smaranda Dumitru As an animal disease center Plum Island has been the focus of many dark government conspiracies, from top secret biological weapon experimentation during the Cold War to the working ground for Nazi scientists recruited after World War II. Perhaps scientific experimentation mixed with government classification is just a hotbed for saucy conspiracies, or maybe there is more to Plum Island than we suspect.

» Can you trust a new brain with an IQ of 7000? Alex Jones Jon Rappoport Prison February 17, 2013 I’ve been forcing myself to read gushing statements about the march of artificial intelligence (AI) and how, in the near future, we will have “the source code of the brain,” and computers will be able to do whatever the brain can do, except much, much faster. I’ve been reading about the day when we humans will somehow merge with the machines. I think the technocrats who promote these notions were raised on comic books, and they haven’t really moved on from that phase. What ever happened to the old phrase, “garbage in equals garbage out?” Was it too telling and real? Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase(Pam) ,partial Recombinant Protein PAM: Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutated to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide by the lyase part. C-terminal amidation of peptides such as neuropeptides is essential for full biological activity. 6 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Protein type: EC; Vesicle; Lyase; Oxidoreductase; EC; Membrane protein, integral