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The race for coronavirus vaccines: a graphical guide

The race for coronavirus vaccines: a graphical guide
More than 90 vaccines are being developed against SARS-CoV-2 by research teams in companies and universities across the world. Researchers are trialling different technologies, some of which haven’t been used in a licensed vaccine before. At least six groups have already begun injecting formulations into volunteers in safety trials; others have started testing in animals. Nature’s graphical guide explains each vaccine design. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: a variety of approaches All vaccines aim to expose the body to an antigen that won’t cause disease, but will provoke an immune response that can block or kill the virus if a person becomes infected. Virus vaccines At least seven teams are developing vaccines using the virus itself, in a weakened or inactivated form. Viral-vector vaccines Around 25 groups say they are working on viral-vector vaccines. Nucleic-acid vaccines Protein-based vaccines Many researchers want to inject coronavirus proteins directly into the body. Industry trials

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-19 vaccine two years away, and could be NZ-made - research leader A Covid-19 vaccine is being described as the Everest of medicine, and the race is on to beat corporate interests to the top of the mountain, Professor Graham Le Gros from Malaghan Institute says. The government has announced $37 million towards a vaccine strategy with the goal to generate adequate supplies of a safe Covid-19 vaccine at the earliest possible time. Of that $10m will go to into local research and $5m will support manufacturing capability. Prof Le Gros heads biomedical research at the Malaghan Institute and is working on a New Zealand-made vaccine. "The only way we can get our economy, our health and our lifestyle back on track is to have a vaccine so that we can start to operate," he told RNZ's Checkpoint. He said supporting homegrown vaccines and investing in production might end up being the best solution for the country.

COVID-19: What is a virus? How do they spread? How do they make us sick? Viruses are the most common biological entities on Earth. Experts estimate there are around 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 of them, and if they were all lined up they would stretch from one side of the galaxy to the other. You can think of them as nature’s own nanotechnology: molecular machines with sizes on the nanometre scale, equipped to invade the cells of other organisms and hijack them to reproduce themselves.

Why deforestation and extinctions make pandemics more likely As humans diminish biodiversity by cutting down forests and building more infrastructure, they’re increasing the risk of disease pandemics such as COVID-19. Many ecologists have long suspected this, but a new study helps to reveal why: while some species are going extinct, those that tend to survive and thrive — rats and bats, for instance — are more likely to host potentially dangerous pathogens that can make the jump to humans. The analysis of around 6,800 ecological communities on 6 continents adds to a growing body of evidence that connects trends in human development and biodiversity loss to disease outbreaks — but stops short of projecting where new disease outbreaks might occur. “We’ve been warning about this for decades,” says Kate Jones, an ecological modeller at University College London and an author on the study, published on 5 August in Nature1. “Nobody paid any attention.”

New poll shows 16% of New Zealanders don’t want to be Covid-19 vaccinated A new survey suggests 16% of us don’t want to receive a Covid-19 vaccine. Josie Adams reports on what this means for herd immunity, and for New Zealand’s strategy to fight the pandemic. A new Stickybeak survey for The Spinoff of New Zealanders’ attitudes to the Covid crisis has found significant opposition to a hypothetical vaccine. Of the 605 respondents in the survey asked “if and when a Covid-19 vaccine becomes available will you aim to get vaccinated?” Coronavirus: what do scientists know about Covid-19 so far? Coronaviruses have been causing problems for humanity for a long time. Several versions are known to trigger common colds and more recently two types have set off outbreaks of deadly illnesses: severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (Mers). But their impact has been mild compared with the global havoc unleashed by the coronavirus that is causing the Covid-19 pandemic. In only a few months it has triggered lockdowns in dozens of nations and claimed more than 100,000 lives.

IHR 2005 in the Coronavirus Pandemic: A Need for a New Instrument to Overcome Fragmentation? Unprecedented Pandemic and Splintered Global Response With 182 countries reporting 6,663,304 confirmed cases with 392,802 deaths (as of Jun. 6, 2020) and activating various national emergency measures, the outbreak of novel coronavirus in 2020 stands to be recorded as the worst global health disaster in recent history. Amid unprecedented uncertainties swirling around almost all sectors of the global community, the COVID-19 pandemic has also raised complex legal issues, which require systematic analysis once the current crisis is brought under control.

How Vaccines Work How Vaccines Work A vaccine works by training the immune system to recognize and combat pathogens, either viruses or bacteria. To do this, certain molecules from the pathogen must be introduced into the body to trigger an immune response. Coronavirus There are many different viruses. Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in birds and mammals. They are all similar in their shape, and in humans, they often cause upper respiratory illnesses. Transmission of coronaviruses Coronaviruses are zoonoses, which means they can be transmitted between animals and people. This means that they can jump the species barrier. China warned of mysterious virus 6 months ago. Here’s where the world is at now. It's been six months since China first reported a cluster of mysterious pneumonia cases in the city of Wuhan. The culprit became known as "SARS-CoV-2," a new virus that had hopped from a still-unknown animal to humans, spreading across the globe like wildfire. The virus has now reached every continent except Antarctica, devastating remote Indigenous populations in the Amazon and spreading in African countries already devastated by other pathogens. In that time, SARS-CoV-2 has caused at least 10.4 million infections worldwide and killed more than 500,000 people.

vaccine An English doctor named Edward Jenner created the first vaccine in 1796. He saw that people who got the mild disease called cowpox rarely got smallpox, which is more serious. He did experiments to find out why. He scratched material from a cowpox sore into the skin of a healthy boy. The boy got cowpox. Coronavirus Infections—More Than Just the Common Cold Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have long been considered inconsequential pathogens, causing the “common cold” in otherwise healthy people. However, in the 21st century, 2 highly pathogenic HCoVs—severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)—emerged from animal reservoirs to cause global epidemics with alarming morbidity and mortality. In December 2019, yet another pathogenic HCoV, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), was recognized in Wuhan, China, and has caused serious illness and death. The ultimate scope and effect of this outbreak is unclear at present as the situation is rapidly evolving. Coronaviruses are large, enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses that can be divided into 4 genera: alpha, beta, delta, and gamma, of which alpha and beta CoVs are known to infect humans.1 Four HCoVs (HCoV 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1) are endemic globally and account for 10% to 30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults.

Scientific American Endorses Joe Biden Scientific American has never endorsed a presidential candidate in its 175-year history. This year we are compelled to do so. We do not do this lightly. The evidence and the science show that Donald Trump has badly damaged the U.S. and its people—because he rejects evidence and science. The most devastating example is his dishonest and inept response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which cost more than 190,000 Americans their lives by the middle of September. He has also attacked environmental protections, medical care, and the researchers and public science agencies that help this country prepare for its greatest challenges. Dealing with vaccine hesitancy in times of coronavirus OPINION: Only a year ago the world was shocked by an outbreak of measles – a disease thought to have been eradicated for decades thanks to large-scale vaccination programmes. It was distressing to read that 70 Samoan children died in 2019 partly because too many parents became sceptical and refused to get their children a measles shot. The controversial phenomenon called “vaccine hesitancy” and “vaccine refusal” that occupied the public agenda and social media platforms at the time presented the views of groups who mistrusted, or were sceptical about, the efficacy and safety of vaccines. Move forward to the present as the world anxiously awaits a new vaccine to put an end to the coronavirus pandemic, while politicians and scientists argue about how soon a new vaccine might pass the testing and approval process.

Covid-19 Cases of Covid-19 first emerged in late 2019, when a mysterious illness was reported in Wuhan, China. The cause of the disease was soon confirmed as a new kind of coronavirus, and the infection has since spread to many countries around the world and become a pandemic. On 11 February the World Health Organization announced that the official name would be covid-19, a shortened version of coronavirus disease 2019. The WHO refers to the specific virus that causes this disease as the covid-19 virus. This is not the formal name for the virus – the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses calls it the “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2”, or SARS-CoV-2, because it is related to the virus that caused the SARS outbreak in 2003.