Le majordome (2013) Civil Rights Movement Veterans - CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- Literacy Tests Literacy Tests & Voter Applications Alabama Georgia Louisiana: Mississippi South Carolina Background Today, most citizens register to vote without regard to race or color by signing their name and address on something like a postcard. Prior to passage of the federal Voting Rights Act in 1965, Southern states maintained elaborate voter registration procedures deliberately designed to deny the vote to nonwhites. This process was often referred to as a "literacy test," a term that had two different meanings — one specific and one general. The more general use of "literacy test" referred to the complex, interlocking systems used to deny Afro-Americans (and in some regions, Latinos and Native Americans) the right to vote so as to ensure that political power remained exclusively white-only. Poll taxes. While in theory there were standard state-wide registration procedures, in real-life the individual county Registrars and clerks did things their own way. — © Bruce Hartford
Lesson 1: Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nonviolent Resistance | EDSITEment If students know anything about the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and '60s, it will probably be Martin Luther King, Jr.'s role in leading the Movement along the path of nonviolent resistance against racial segregation. Most likely, they will have seen or read his "I Have a Dream" speech (August 28, 1963), delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, which closes with the famous line, "Free at last, free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" The Birmingham campaign of March and April 1963 followed a less successful protest the previous year in Albany, Georgia. Birmingham was Alabama's largest city, but its 40 percent black population suffered stark inequities in education, employment, and income. When eight white clergymen (Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish) learned of King's plans to stage mass protests in Birmingham during the Easter season in 1963, they published a statement voicing disagreement with King's attempt to reform the segregated city.
Social Protests The modern civil rights movement grew out of a long history of social protest. In the South, any protest risked violent retaliation. Even so, between 1900 and 1950, community leaders in many Southern cities protested segregation. Following World War II, a great push to end segregation began. The greatest victory occurred in 1954. The Montgomery Bus Boycott In December 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, one of the first major protests began. The NAACP saw Parks’ arrest as an opportunity to challenge segregation laws in a major Southern city. The success of the one-day boycott inspired black leaders to organize a long-term boycott. Car pools were organized to get black participants to work. King conceived of a strategy of non-violence and civil disobedience to resist the violent opposition to the boycott. The Montgomery bus boycott lasted 382 days. The success of the boycott propelled King to national prominence and to leadership in the civil rights movement. The Sit-ins The Freedom Ride Selma
Primary Sources - History 128: The Civil Rights Movement - LibGuides at Tufts University African-American Newspapers, 1827-1998 Many of the ones below may be in this collection! Check here first. The Crisis, founded by W.E.B. 1910 to the present are available to search. Tisch does not own the titles below, you will need to request them on Interlibrary Loan or go to the library owning them. Black Panther v. 5 (1970)-v. 20: no. 9 (1980: Sept.) Muhammad Speaks Vol. 1, [no. 1] (Oct. Bilalian News "Muhammad speaks" is superimposed on "Bilalian news" on masthead, Nov. 7, 1975. Los Angeles Sentinel 1969- at Boston College O'Neill Library Microforms
Response to Segregation All images except those of the Manassas Industrial School are from the Library of Congress. Manassas Industrial School photos courtesy the Manassas Museum System, Manassas, Virginia. Some photos been edited or resized for this page. #31: The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell #31: The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell, 1964 This analysis copyright Scott M. McDaniel, 2010 The Image Larger Version Driving up I could see the crowd, but living in New Orleans, I actually thought it was Mardi Gras. On November 14, 1960 federal marshals escorted Ruby Hall to her first day of kindergarten. Norman Rockwell painted this picture for Look magazine. Black and White A good illustration needs a clear silhouette. Ruby’s white dress works with her dark skin to create the high contrast and to create the silhouette that all by itself communicates the idea of a walking African American schoolgirl. Direction I’m not going to go into color palette and choices very much, but I do want to point out how Rockwell uses saturation. Everything is greyscale except for the areas inside the ovals, which I left as they appear in the painting. My eye starts at A. Composition Message and Symbolism The Elements
Dress for the Occasion | National Museum of African American History and Culture On the other hand, the president was hesitant to employ federal authority in defiance of the tradition of local control over law enforcement and education. He knew state and local leaders across the South would be horrified at this use of federal power, even if it was intended to support the rule of law. As the president of the Little Rock Chamber of Commerce put it, “. . . we hadn’t had federal troops since  ’67! That was so shocking that we didn’t know whether we should support the government or not” (Jacoway, Turn Away Thy Son). Eisenhower’s decision established a new precedent. Eisenhower’s reluctant use of federal authority in a civil rights matter in Little Rock in 1957 was just the beginning. Carlotta Walls and her fellow African American students wanted a quality education. Written by William Pretzer, Senior History Curator