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"The Macroscope", a book on the systems approach

"The Macroscope", a book on the systems approach
Related:  Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Home International Society for the Systems Sciences The International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) is a world-wide organization for systems sciences. The overall purpose of the ISSS is: "to promote the development of conceptual frameworks based on general system theory, as well as their implementation in practice. It further seeks to encourage research and facilitate communication between and among scientists and professionals from various disciplines and professions at local, regional, national, and international levels The society initiated in 1954 as Society for the Advancement of General Systems Theory started in 1955/56 as Society for General Systems Research, and became the first interdisciplinary and international co-operations in the field of systems theory and systems science.[2] In 1988 it was renamed to the International Society for the Systems Sciences. History[edit] In mission of the society was formulated with the following four objectives:[4] Activities[edit] Important activities of the Society are: Presidents[edit]

Viable system model Overview[edit] The model was developed by operations research theorist and cybernetician Stafford Beer in his book Brain of the Firm (1972).[1] Together with Beer's earlier works on cybernetics applied to management, this book effectively founded management cybernetics. The first thing to note about the cybernetic theory of organizations encapsulated in the VSM is that viable systems are recursive; viable systems contain viable systems that can be modeled using an identical cybernetic description as the higher (and lower) level systems in the containment hierarchy (Beer expresses this property of viable systems as cybernetic isomorphism). A development of this model has originated the theoretical proposal called Viable systems approach. Components of the viable system model[edit] Here we give a brief introduction to the cybernetic description of the organization encapsulated in a single level of the VSM.[2] Principal functions of the VSM Rules for the viable system[edit] These principles are:

Histoire E-book Glossary of systems theory A glossary of terms as relating to systems theory.[1] A[edit] B[edit] C[edit] Cascading failure: failure in a system of interconnected parts, where the service provided depends on the operation of a preceding part, and the failure of a preceding part can trigger the failure of successive parts.Closed system: a system which can exchange energy (as heat or work), but not matter, with its surroundings.Complexity: A systemic characteristic that stands for a large number of densely connected parts and multiple levels of embeddedness and entanglement. D[edit] Development: The process of liberating a system from its previous set of limiting conditions. E[edit] F[edit] H[edit] I[edit] Isolated system: A system in which the total energy-mass is conserved without any external exchange happening. L[edit] Lowerarchy: A specific type of hierarchy involving a ‘bottom up’ arrangement of entities such that the few are influenced by the many. M[edit] O[edit] Open System Model (basics) P[edit] R[edit] S[edit] W[edit]

Closed system The term closed system refers to a physical system which does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass) in or out of the system. The specification of what types of transfers are excluded, is different in different contexts. In physics[edit] In classical mechanics[edit] In nonrelativistic classical mechanics, a closed system is a physical system which doesn't exchange any matter with its surroundings, and isn't subject to any force whose source is external to the system.[1][2] A closed system in classical mechanics would be considered an isolated system in thermodynamics. In thermodynamics[edit] In thermodynamics, a closed system can exchange energy (as heat or work) but not matter, with its surroundings. where is the number of j-type molecules, is the number of atoms of element i in molecule j and bi is the total number of atoms of element i in the system, which remains constant, since the system is closed. In relativistic physics[edit] In quantum physics[edit]

Dunning–Kruger effect Cognitive bias in which people of low ability mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from the inability of people to recognize their lack of ability. Without the self-awareness of metacognition, people cannot objectively evaluate their competence or incompetence.[1] As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others. Definition[edit] Original study[edit] Later studies[edit] Popular recognition[edit] Systems Theory Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research.[citation needed] The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking; alternatively as a goal output of systems science and systems engineering, with an emphasis on generality useful across a broad range of systems (versus the particular models of individual fields). A central topic of systems theory is self-regulating systems, i.e. systems self-correcting through feedback. Self-regulating systems are found in nature, including the physiological systems of our body, in local and global ecosystems, and in climate—and in human learning processes (from the individual on up through international organizations like the UN).[3] Overview[edit] Examples of applications[edit] Systems biology[edit]