Japanese (日本語, Nihongo?, [nihõŋɡo], [nihõŋŋo] ( )) is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, whose relation to other language groups, particularly to Korean and the suggested Altaic language family, is debated. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. History Prehistory A common ancestor of Japanese and Ryukyuan languages or dialects is thought[by whom?] Old Japanese Old Japanese is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language. Due to these extra syllables, it has been hypothesized that Old Japanese's vowel system was larger than that of Modern Japanese – it perhaps contained up to eight vowels. Old Japanese does not have /h/, but rather /ɸ/ (preserved in modern fu, /ɸɯ/), which has been reconstructed to an earlier */p/. Early Middle Japanese Late Middle Japanese
Related: Demographics of Japan
Languages of JapanThe oral languages spoken by the native peoples of the insular country of Japan at present and during recorded history belong to either of two primary phyla of human language: In addition to these two indigenous language families, there is Japanese Sign Language as well as significant minorities of ethnic Koreans and Chinese, who respectively constitute approximately 0.5% and 0.4% of the country's population and many of whom continue to speak their respective ethnic language in private contexts (see Zainichi Korean). There is also a notable history of use of Kanbun (Classical Chinese) as a language of literature and diplomacy in Japan, similar to the status of the Latin language in medieval Europe, which has left an indelible mark on the vocabulary of the Japanese language.
Hachijō dialectsThe small group of Hachijo or Hachijōjima dialects are perhaps the most divergent of Japanese. They are spoken on the southern Izu Islands south of Tokyo, Hachijō Island and the smaller Aogashima, as well as on the Daitō Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, which were settled from Hachijo in the Meiji period. Based on the criterion of mutual intelligibility, Hachijo may be considered a distinct Japonic language. Hachijo dialects retain ancient Eastern Japanese features, as recorded in the 8th-century Man'yōshū. There are also lexical similarities with the dialects of Kyushu and even the Ryukyuan languages; it is not clear if these indicate the southern Izu islands were settled from that region, if they are loans brought by sailors traveling among the southern islands, or if they might be independent retentions of Old Japanese. Dialects The dialect of Aogashima is quite distinct. Grammar Vocabulary References Further reading
Bugatti – The World Fastest And Expensive Car – 5Dynamics in numbers. The new Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse boasts a remarkable maximum torque of 1,500 Nm (at 3,000–5,000 rpm) from the 7.9-liter capacity of its W16 engine. The maximum output (1,200 hp) is reached at 6,400 rpm. For More Photos of Bugatti >> Spread your love!Southern EuropeSouthern Europe is the southern region of the European continent. Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include Italy, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Andorra, Vatican City, San Marino, Gibraltar, Corsica, and Malta. It also often includes Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Slovenia, the East Thrace of European Turkey, and Cyprus, though these countries may fall under different regional definitions as well. Geographic features of Southern European countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea European subregions according to Eurovoc (the thesaurus of the European Union). Different methods can be used to define Southern Europe, including its political, economic, and cultural attributes. Politically, seven of the Southern European states form the EU Med group. Geography Geographically, Southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. Climate Flora The European floristic regions Population History
Languages of JapanJapanese dialectsThe dialects of the Japanese language fall into two primary clades, Eastern (including Tokyo) and Western (including Kyoto), with the dialects of Kyushu and Hachijō Island often distinguished as additional branches, the latter perhaps the most divergent of all. The Ryukyuan languages of Okinawa Prefecture and the southern islands of Kagoshima Prefecture form a separate branch of the Japonic family, and are not Japanese dialects. History Regional variants of Japanese have been confirmed since the Old Japanese era. With modernization in the late 19th century, the government and the intellectuals promoted establishment and spread of the standard language. Now standard Japanese spread throughout the nation and traditional regional languages/dialects are declining because of education, television, expansion of traffic, urban concentration and etc. Classification Eastern Japanese dialects are blue, Western Japanese tan. Kyoto type (tone+downstep) Tokyo type (downstep) Cladogram
carsSoutheast AsiaSoutheast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity. Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: Divisions Political Sovereign states * Administrative centre in Putrajaya. Dependent territories UNSD statistical division for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: Southeast Asia Administrative subdivisions Geographical Relief map of Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia (or Indochina) and Maritime Southeast Asia (or the similarly defined Malay Archipelago) (Indonesian: Nusantara). Mainland Southeast Asia includes: Maritime Southeast Asia includes: