Kojiki Kojiki (古事記?, "Record of Ancient Matters") is the oldest extant chronicle in Japan, dating from the early 8th century (711–712) and composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Gemmei. The Kojiki is a collection of myths concerning the origin of the four home islands of Japan, and the Kami. Along with the Nihon Shoki, the myths contained in the Kojiki are part of the inspiration behind Shinto practices and myths, including the misogi purification ritual. Structure The Kojiki contains various songs/poems. Sections The Kojiki is divided into three parts: the Kamitsumaki (上巻, "first volume"?) The Kamitsumaki, also known as the Kamiyo no Maki (神代巻? Study of the Kojiki In the Edo period, Motoori Norinaga studied the Kojiki intensively. The first and best-known English translation of the Kojiki was made by the renowned Japanologist Basil Hall Chamberlain. Manuscripts There are two major branches of Kojiki manuscripts: Ise and Urabe. the Dōka-bon (道果本?)
Japanese mythology Japanese myths, as generally recognized in the mainstream today, are based on the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki, and some complementary books. The Kojiki, or "Record of Ancient Matters", is the oldest surviving account of Japan's myths, legends and history. The Shintōshū describes the origins of Japanese deities from a Buddhist perspective, while the Hotsuma Tsutae records a substantially different version of the mythology. One notable feature of Japanese mythology is its explanation of the origin of the imperial family which has been used historically to assign godhood to the imperial line. The Japanese title of the Emperor of Japan, tennō (天皇), means "heavenly sovereign". Note: Japanese is not transliterated consistently across all sources, see: #Spelling of proper nouns Creation myth In the Japanese creation myth, the first deities which came into existence, appearing at the time of the creation of the universe, are collectively called Kotoamatsukami. Kuniumi and Kamiumi
Shintoshu The Shintōshū (神道集?) is a Japanese story book in ten volumes believed to date from the Nanboku-chō period (1336–1392). It illustrates with tales about various shrines the Buddhist honji suijaku theory, according to which Japanese kami were simply local manifestations of the Indian gods of Buddhism. This theory, created and developed mostly by Tendai monks, was never systematized, but was nonetheless very pervasive and very influential. The book had thereafter great influence over literature and the arts. History The book is believed to have been written during the late Nanboku-chō period, either during the Bunna or the Enbun era. It carries the note Agui-saku (安居院作? The common point of the tales is that, before reincarnating as tutelary kami of an area, a soul has first to be born and suffer there as a human being. The book had a great impact on the literature and arts of the following centuries. References ^ Jump up to: a b Iwanami Kōjien (広辞苑?)
Buddhism Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"). Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a third branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Theravada has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon, and Tiantai (Tendai) is found throughout East Asia. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Mongolia and Kalmykia. Buddhists number between an estimated 488 million[web 1] and 535 million, making it one of the world's major religions. Life of the Buddha Relic depicting Gautama leaving home. Main article: Gautama Buddha This narrative draws on the Nidānakathā of the Jataka tales of the Theravada, which is ascribed to Buddhaghoṣa in the 5th century CE. Saṃsāra Karma 6.
Shinto Shinto priest and priestess. Shinto (神道, Shintō?), also kami-no-michi,[note 1] is the indigenous religion of Japan and the people of Japan. It is defined as an action-centered religion, focused on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Founded in 660 BC according to Japanese mythology, Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology. Shinto today is a term that applies to the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods (kami), suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, and applies as well to various sectarian organizations. According to Inoue (2003): Types of Shinto Shrine Shinto (神社神道, Jinja-Shintō?) Kami
Graphene’s cousin silicene makes transistor debut Seven years ago, silicene was little more than a theorist’s dream. Buoyed by a frenzy of interest in graphene — the famous material composed of a honeycomb of carbon just one atom thick — researchers speculated that silicon atoms might form similar sheets. And if they could be used to build electronic devices, these slivers of silicene could enable the semiconductor industry to achieve the ultimate in miniaturization. This week, researchers took a significant step towards realizing that dream, by unveiling details of the first silicene transistor1. Although the device’s performance is modest, and its lifetime measured in mere minutes, this proof of concept has already been causing a stir at conferences, says Deji Akinwande, a nanomaterials researcher at the University of Texas at Austin who helped to make the transistor. “Nobody could have expected that in such a short time, something that didn’t exist could make a transistor,” he says. Ref. 1 2007 The name ‘silicene’ is coined.
Japanese calligraphy Japanese calligraphy (書道, shodō?) is a form of calligraphy, or artistic writing, of the Japanese language. For a long time, the most esteemed calligrapher in Japan had been Wang Xizhi, a Chinese calligrapher in the 4th century, but after the invention of Hiragana and Katakana, the Japanese unique syllabaries, the distinctive Japanese writing system developed and calligraphers produced styles intrinsic to Japan. Techniques Japanese calligraphy shares its roots with Chinese calligraphy and many of its principles and techniques are very similar and recognizes the same basic writing styles: Tools A traditional inkstone to grind ink and water against. A typical brush used for calligraphy. In modern calligraphy, a number of tools are utilized to make a composition. An inkstick (墨, sumi?). During preparation, water is poured into the inkstone and the inkstick is ground against it, mixing the water with the dried ink to liquefy it. History Chinese roots Heian Period
African Philosophy The Kenyan philosopher Henry Odera Oruka distinguishes what he calls four trends in African philosophy: ethnophilosophy, philosophic sagacity, nationalistic-ideological philosophy, and professional philosophy. In fact it would be more realistic to call them candidates for the position of African philosophy, with the understanding that more than one of them might fit the bill. Ethnophilosophy involves the recording of the beliefs found in African cultures. Such an approach treats African philosophy as consisting in a set of shared beliefs, a shared world-view -- an item of communal property rather than an activity for the individual. Philosophic sagacity is a sort of individualist version of ethnophilosophy, in which one records the beliefs of certain special members of a community. The problem with both ethnophilosophy and philosophical sagacity is that there is surely an important distinction between philosophy and the history of ideas.
REFLEXION BUJINKAN | Les réflexions d'un Shidoshi-Hô Importance Of Philosophy Omoté-Ura, Yin-Yang - AikiAutrement Contrairement à ce que l’on pourrait penser, les notions de omoté et ura , ne sont pas réservées aux techniques d’aïkido ou à son vocabulaire. La philosophie et les sciences antiques, nous placent en face d’une pelote de laquelle il n’est pas aisé de tirer les fils pour en démêler le sens : les différents constituants, pris isolement sont très simples, la complexité réside en un ensemble d’interaction et d’interdépendance. Omoté et Ura sont intimement liés à la théorie du Yin /Yang qui découle de celle du Ki (Qi) et du Do (Tao). Dans la société japonaise. Omoté et Ura qui désignent respectivement l’endroit - le recto - et l’envers- le verso- ce sont des termes qui caractérisent la double structure de la mentalité japonaise : la façade (Tatamaé) – principe de convenance sociale - et la vérité individuelle (Honné). Dans la pensée chinoise ancienne. La translittération chinoise l’idéogramme 表 (omoté)se prononce Biao et l’idéogramme 裏 (ura) se prononce Li.
15 Amazing Animated Short films We all love short animated films, but creating short film is very hard task. Putting whole story in 5 to 10 minutes is not easy. Can you imagine? Few films produced after working hard more than 6 years! Here we collected 15 dazzling animated short films for your inspiration. I bet you will love these short animated movies, do let us know your favorite one, also feel free to share your favorite short film if it’s not present in the list. Granny O’Grimm’s Sleeping Beauty Oscar-nominated film of ‘Granny O’Grimm’, directed by Nicky Phelan, produced by Brown Bag Films, and written/voiced by Kathleen O’Rourke. Oktapodi (2007) In Oktapodi, these two cuties help each other escape the clutches of a tyrannical restaurant cook. This Side Up – A Short Animation by Liron Topaz A naive music-lover’s patience is tested on his quest to download music online, as his perspective on technology completely changes. Oxygen Oxygen tries to make friends on the playground. Marcelino and Bartolomeo: Bye Bye! Alma
In Praise of Shadows: Ancient Japanese Aesthetics and Why Every Technology Is a Technology of Thought – Brain Pickings By Maria Popova At least since Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, we’ve seen shadows as a metaphor for the illusory and wicked aspects of life, for that which we must eradicate in order to illuminate the truth and inherent goodness of existence. And yet we forget that the darkness they cast evidences the light — palpable proof without which we might not appreciate or even notice the radiance itself. The 1933 gem In Praise of Shadows (public library) by Japanese literary titan Junichiro Tanizaki (July 24, 1886–July 30, 1965) belongs to that special order of slim, enormously powerful books that enchant the lay reader with an esoteric subject, leaving a lifelong imprint on the imagination — rare masterpieces like Robin Wall Kimmerer’s love letter to moss and Glenn Kurtz’s paean to the pleasures of playing guitar. Tanizaki, translated here by Thomas J. At the heart of this philosophy is a fundamental cultural polarity. It would surely have had a tufted end like our writing brush.