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Garden path sentence

Garden path sentence
According to one current psycholinguistic theory, as a person reads a garden path sentence, the reader builds up a structure of meaning one word at a time. At some point, it becomes clear to the reader that the next word or phrase cannot be incorporated into the structure built up thus far; it is inconsistent with the path down which they have been led. Garden path sentences are less common in spoken communication because the prosodic qualities of speech (such as the stress and the tone of voice) often serve to resolve ambiguities in the written text. This phenomenon is discussed at length by Stanley Fish in his book Surprised by Sin. Examples[edit] Garden path sentences can be either simple or complex. Simple[edit] A second phrase can cause the reinterpretation of meaning (see paraprosdokian): Time flies like an arrow; fruit flies like a banana. Complex[edit] The horse raced past the barn fell. Other examples of garden path sentences are:[citation needed] By language type[edit] Parsing[edit] Related:  WordsLanguage, Words, & Meaning

Building an Archive of ALL Documented Human Languages. - The Rosetta Project 15 styles of Distorted Thinking 15 styles of Distorted Thinking Filtering: You take the negative details and magnify them while filtering out all positive aspects of a situation. Polarized Thinking: Things are black or white, good or bad. You have to be perfect or you're a failure. Checklist for Hidden Anger Procrastination in the completion of imposed tasks. New XO Attempting To Stamp Out Misuse of Word ‘Literally’ FORT BLISS, TEXAS – Major Sean O’Sullivan, the new executive officer of 1-42 Air Defense Artillery Battalion, has made it his primary mission in life to stamp out the misuse of the word “literally” among his staff officers and subordinate leaders within the battalion. O’Sullivan’s first salvo in this campaign came last Tuesday in the form of a signed and scanned memorandum sent to all 1-42 ADA staff officers and company commanders, with both the battalion and brigade commanders carbon copied. The memorandum went into some detail on how the XO saw an increase in the misuse of the word “literally” throughout the formation and encouraged all battalion personnel to avoid using it “in e-mails, military memos, or even off-duty hours if [they] do not know how to use it properly.” In the memo’s next paragraph, O’Sullivan writes: “I recently heard a battery commander during a safety brief say, ‘You guys need to stay safe. Like, literally, this is very important to me and the first sergeant.’

Everybody in Almost Every Language Says “Huh”? HUH?! Listen to one end of a phone conversation, and you’ll probably hear a rattle of ah’s, um’s and mm-hm’s. Our speech is brimming with these fillers, yet linguistic researchers haven’t paid much attention to them until now. New research by Mark Dingemanse and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, has uncovered a surprisingly important role for an interjection long dismissed as one of language’s second-class citizens: the humble huh? Dingemanse’s team analyzed recordings of people speaking ten different languages, including Spanish, Chinese and Icelandic, as well as indigenous languages from Ecuador, Australia and Ghana. In each of the languages investigated, the vowel is produced with a relatively relaxed tongue (never a vowel that requires you to lift your tongue, like “ee,” or pull the tongue back, like “oo”). Huh? What makes huh a word—and not, alternatively, the equivalent of a yelp? But why would huh? What we do know is that huh?

Technology Review: The Authority on the Future of Technology How would you sound on Mars? NASA file Astronauts on Mars would probably speak with each other on the surface through radio links — but if they were to pick up voices or sounds transmitted through Martian air, would they sound different? Acoustics experts say they would. By Alan Boyle, Science Editor, NBC News If you could speak on Venus, you might sound like a deep-voiced Smurf — while on Mars, your voice could have the shallow ring of a higher-pitched Shrek. "This is the real deal," Tim Leighton, an acoustics professor at the British university, said in a news release. The sounds are being shown off over the next week at the Astrium Planetarium at INTECH, near Winchester, as part of a show titled "Flight Through the Universe." "Hearing the sounds communicates ideas about the different atmospheres and highlights the sheer alienness of the other worlds in our solar system," planetarium manager Jenny Shipway said. "On Venus, the pitch of your voice would become much deeper," Leighton said.

International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)[note 1] is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of oral language.[1] The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators, and translators.[2][3] History[edit] Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. Extensions to the IPA for speech pathology were created in 1990 and officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994.[11] Description[edit] A chart of the full International Phonetic Alphabet, expanded and re-organized from the official chart. Letterforms[edit] The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. Symbols and sounds[edit] Brackets and phonemes[edit] Other conventions are less commonly seen:

The Usability of Passwords (by @baekdal) #tips Security companies and IT people constantly tells us that we should use complex and difficult passwords. This is bad advice, because you can actually make usable, easy to remember and highly secure passwords. In fact, usable passwords are often far better than complex ones. So let's dive into the world of passwords, and look at what makes a password secure in practical terms. Update: Read the FAQ (updated January 2011) Update - April 21, 2011: This article was "featured" on Security Now, here is my reply! How to hack a password The work involved in hacking passwords is very simple. Asking: Amazingly the most common way to gain access to someone's password is simply to ask for it (often in relation with something else). When is a password secure? You cannot protect against "asking" and "guessing", but you can protect yourself from the other forms of attacks. The measure of security must then be "how many password requests can the automated program make - e.g. per second". Like these: It takes:

Animal Behaviorist: We'll Soon Have Devices That Let Us Talk With Our Pets - Megan Garber We're fast approaching the point, says Con Slobodchikoff, when computers will help to mediate our communications with animals. We all try to talk with animals, but very few of us do so professionally. And even fewer are trying to build devices that could allow us to communicate with our pets and farm animals. Meet one person who is trying to do just that: Con Slobodchikoff , a professor emeritus at Northern Arizona University, and a modern-day Dr. To arrive at those findings, Slobodchikoff relied on statistical analyses of the alarm calls produced by one particular species, the Gunnison's prairie dog . For a detailed (and totally delightful) guide to the prairie dogs' different alarm calls, see this Radiolab interactive . To learn more, I spoke with Slobodchikoff about his previous research, his upcoming investigations, and what he thinks the future will hold when it comes to animal-human communications. My conversation with him, lightly edited, is below. And the jump-yip !

Rhyming slang Rhyming slang is a form of phrase construction in the English language and is especially prevalent in dialectal English from the East End of London; hence the alternative name, Cockney rhyming slang. The construction involves replacing a common word with a rhyming phrase of two or three words and then, in almost all cases, omitting the secondary rhyming word (which is thereafter implied), in a process called hemiteleia,[1][2] making the origin and meaning of the phrase elusive to listeners not in the know.[3] A frequently cited example[by whom?] In similar fashion, "telephone" is replaced by "dog" (= 'dog-and-bone'); "wife" by "trouble" (= 'trouble-and-strife'); "eyes" by "mincers" (= 'mince pies'); "wig" by "syrup" (= 'syrup of figs') and "feet" by "plates" (= 'plates of meat'). In some examples the meaning is further obscured by adding a second iteration of rhyme and truncation to the original rhymed phrase. History[edit] Development[edit] Many examples have passed into common usage. Muscles are funny things. They respond to just about any type of training, as long as it's hard and as long as it's not the same damn thing you've always done. That's the beauty of density training: It's a whole lot of stuff you haven't tried yet. And best of all, it'll hit your major muscles in a fraction of the time. Instead of counting reps and sets, you'll focus on the total amount of work you can accomplish in a fixed amount of time. Unsure what exercises you should focus on? THE PLAN: Do three density workouts a week, with at least 1 day off in between. Pushup Assume a pushup position, with your hands slightly beyond shoulder-width apart, feet together, and body in a straight line from head to ankles. Reverse Lunge and 1-Arm Press Stand holding a pair of dumbbells next to your shoulders. Inverted Row Lie underneath a secured bar. Prisoner Squat Place your fingers on the back of your head, pull your elbows and shoulders back, and stand with your feet shoulder-width apart. Goblet Squat

13 Little-Known Punctuation Marks We Should Be Using Because sometimes periods, commas, colons, semi-colons, dashes, hyphens, apostrophes, question marks, exclamation points, quotation marks, brackets, parentheses, braces, and ellipses won't do. 1. Interrobang You probably already know the interrobang, thanks to its excellent moniker and increasing popularity. Though the combination exclamation point and question mark can be replaced by using one of each (You did what!? or You don't read mental_floss?!) 2. The backward question mark was proposed by Henry Denham in 1580 as an end to a rhetorical question, and was used until the early 1600s. 3. It looks a lot like the percontation point, but the irony mark's location is a bit different, as it is smaller, elevated, and precedes a statement to indicate its intent before it is read. 4. Among Bazin's proposed new punctuation was the love point, made of two question marks, one mirrored, that share a point. 5. 6. Need to say something with unwavering conviction? 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 & 13.