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Operant Conditioning

How Reinforcement and Punishment Modify Behavior Operant conditioning, also known as instrumental conditioning, is a method of learning normally attributed to B.F. Skinner, where the consequences of a response determine the probability of it being repeated. Through operant conditioning behavior which is reinforced (rewarded) will likely be repeated, and behavior which is punished will occur less frequently. By the 1920s, John B. Watson had left academic psychology, and other behaviorists were becoming influential, proposing new forms of learning other than classical conditioning. Skinner's views were slightly less extreme than those of Watson (1913). The work of Skinner was rooted in a view that classical conditioning was far too simplistic to be a complete explanation of complex human behavior. BF Skinner: Operant Conditioning Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s (1898) law of effect. Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement

Related:  (Psy 108) Reinforcement and punishment that could be applied to promote road safetyRoad Safety: Reinforcement and PunishmentThe use of Reinforcements and Punishments to influence your teenage child's behaviourOperant conditioning - Reinforcement & Punishment. How psychology can promote road safety.What are reinforcement and punishment to parents? And how parents can use these to influence the behaviour of their teenage children.

(Positive Punishment and Negative reinforcement examples) 12 Examples of Positive Punishment & Negative Reinforcement You might be thinking that “positive punishment” sounds like an oxymoron, after all, how can punishment be positive? Not many people “like” punishment, right? The disconnect in understanding this concept comes from the usage of the word “positive;” here at, we generally use the term “positive” to refer to things that are inherently good, things that are life-giving, and things that promote thriving and flourishing. The concept of positive punishment comes from a very different era and a very different perspective on psychology; namely, the 1930s and behaviorism.

[Additional Readings] Reinforcement and Punishment Learning Objectives Explain the difference between reinforcement and punishment (including positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment)Define shapingDifferentiate between primary and secondary reinforcers In discussing operant conditioning, we use several everyday words—positive, negative, reinforcement, and punishment—in a specialized manner. In operant conditioning, positive and negative do not mean good and bad.

Adolescence Adolescence can be a time of both disorientation and discovery. The transitional period can raise questions of independence and identity; as adolescents cultivate their sense of self, they may face difficult choices about academics, friendship, sexuality, gender identity, drugs, and alcohol. Most teens have a relatively egocentric perspective on life; a state of mind that usually abates with age. They often focus on themselves and believe that everyone else—from a best friend to a distant crush—is focused on them too. They may grapple with insecurities and feelings of being judged. Relationships with family members often take a backseat to peer groups, romantic interests, and appearance, which teens perceive as increasingly important during this time. In Singapore, Traffic Police Give Vouchers As Well As Fines Nobody likes traffic enforcement officers, or the summons they give when they catch you. Now, however, Traffic Police have chosen to commend motorists for showing good behaviour…by giving them a commendation certificate, zebra plush toys, and petrol vouchers. Source They give out zebra plush toys because that’s the mascot for the Singapore Road Safety Council. So no asking for Baymax.

Launch Of Singapore Road Safety Month 2020 Online Campaign The Singapore Road Safety Council (SRSC) and Traffic Police (TP), with support from the Land Transport Authority (LTA), Ministry of Education (MOE), People’s Association (PA) and Automobile Association of Singapore (AAS), launched the Singapore Road Safety Month (SRSM) 2020 online campaign today. In its eighth year, the theme of the month-long campaign is “Road Safety for All”, and will focus on raising awareness on road safety and encouraging road users to play their part in keeping the roads safe. During the campaign, posters and banners will be displayed on trains, bus shelters and lampposts in the heartlands and vicinity of schools to remind the road users on good road safety practices.

(Positive Reinforcement examples) Positive Reinforcement in Psychology (Definition + 5 Examples) If you read our earlier piece on positive punishment, you know that there are different methods of teaching and instilling good habits and behaviors. One of the most powerful and effective methods is one that you’re probably at least somewhat familiar with: positive reinforcement. Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values and self-compassion and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students or employees. You can download the free PDF here. What is the Meaning of Positive Reinforcement?

[Positive Punishment] 10kmh riding speed limit on footpaths among new rules to kick in on Feb 1 SINGAPORE: The Land Transport Authority (LTA) on Friday (Jan 18) announced that new rules encouraging safer path and road-sharing will be implemented on Feb 1. The rules, first announced in September last year, include a lower speed limit for riders on footpaths, the mandatory use of helmets by cyclists on roads, "stop and look" requirement for all active mobility device users and maximum device speed for personal mobility aids (PMAs). The rules are "part of ongoing efforts to foster greater rider responsibility and encourage safe sharing of our paths and roads”, the authority said in a news release. Under the new rules, the speed limit for riding on footpaths will be lowered from the current 15kmh to 10kmh. “This will allow all path users more time to react to unforeseen circumstances, thus reducing the risk of accidents and severity of injuries should they happen,” said LTA.

The 4 Parenting Styles: What Works and What Doesn’t By Dr. Maryann Rosenthal, co-author of Be A Parent, Not A Pushover, reprinted with permission from I believe it’s that overall style or pattern of action — rather than a specific decision — that will most affect a child’s behavior. Road Safety Campaigns - how traffic police engages the public RoadSense Carnival On 6 July 2019, Traffic Police organised the RoadSense Carnival at the Ngee Ann City Civic Plaza. The inaugural RoadSense Carnival was graced by Mr Amrin Amin, Senior Parliamentary Secretary for Ministry of Home Affairs & Ministry of Health. The event’s theme was ‘Take the Road to Responsibility’, and this event was organised to educate road users in Singapore about the importance of graciousness to create a more pleasant road user experience for all Singaporeans. More than 3,600 people attended the event to learn about road safety through a line-up of fun and engaging games and activities. Traffic Police also launched eight characters, known as “The Responsibles”, to reinforce the need for a shared and collective sense of responsibility for our actions on the roads in Singapore.

Road accident statistics in Singapore 2020 Last Updated: January, 2020. Latest available data from May, 2019. Highlights There were 7,690 road accidents involving injuries in 2018120 people were killed in traffic accidents in 2018Elderly pedestrians accounted for two-thirds of all pedestrian fatalities. (1 in 2 accidents involving elderly pedestrians was due to jaywalking)Motorcyclists and pillion riders account for about 1 in 2 of overall road fatalities73% of heavy vehicle drivers speed when traffic is lightSingapore’s road fatality rate of 2.73 per 100,000 citizens is higher than London, Hong Kong and Tokyo. Deaths per 100,000 people (Negative Punishment examples) Negative Punishment Examples and Scenarios Nobody ever wants their stuff taken away. That is the main concept behind negative punishment. Using negative punishment example scenarios, gain an understanding of the concept and its effectiveness. Then, go on to explore the difference between positive and negative punishment. Exploring Negative Punishment

[Positive Reinforcement] Launch Of Road Safety For The Elderly 2020 Campaign The Singapore Road Safety Council (SRSC) and Traffic Police (TP), with support from the Land Transport Authority (LTA) and People’s Association (PA), launched the Road Safety for the Elderly 2020 campaign on 28 August 2020. Accidents involving elderly pedestrians remain a key concern. In the first half of 2020, about 46% of all accidents involving elderly pedestrians were attributed to jaywalking.

This article gives some insight into B.F. Skinner's views on Operant Conditioning. Skinner was a behaviourist who believed behaviours and their motivations could be understood by the consequences of those behaviours. by joshuawong001 Sep 23

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