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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). It emerged as an independent state c. 1894 BC, with the city of Babylon as its capital. It was often involved in rivalry with its fellow Akkadian state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. The Babylonian state retained the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Amorite founders and Kassite successors not being native Akkadians. The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad (2334- 2279 BC), dating back to the 23rd century BC. Periods[edit] Old Pre-Babylonian period[edit] The extent of the Babylonian Empire at the start and end of Hammurabi's reign The empire eventually disintegrated due to economic decline, climate change and civil war, followed by attacks by the Gutians from the Zagros Mountains. The Empire of Hammurabi Related:  The Story of Human Language

Amhara people The Amhara (Amharic: አማራ?, Āmara;[3] Ge'ez: አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära) are an ethnic group inhabiting the central highlands of Ethiopia.[2] According to the 2007 national census, they numbered 30,870,651 individuals, comprising 30.89% of the country's population.[1] They speak Amharic, an Afro-Asiatic language of the Semitic branch, and are one of the Habesha peoples. Etymology[edit] The present name for the language and its speakers comes from the medieval province of Amhara, located around Lake Tana at the headwaters of the Blue Nile and including a slightly larger area than Ethiopia's present Amhara Region. The further derivation of the name is debated. History[edit] Main article: Habesha people Certain Semitic-speaking peoples, notably the Habesha, built the Kingdom of Aksum around two millennia ago, and this expanded to contain what is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, and at times, portions of Yemen and Sudan. The Amharic language is the official language of Ethiopia. Language[edit] Culture[edit]

Akkadian Empire Historical state in Mesopotamia Coordinates: 33°6′N 44°6′E / 33.100°N 44.100°E / 33.100; 44.100 During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.[5] Akkadian, an East Semitic language,[6] gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate).[7] The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad.[8] Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south. History of research[edit] Dating and periodization[edit] Sargon of Akkad[edit]

Nubian people The Nubians are an ethnic group originally from northern Sudan, and southern Egypt. The Nubian people in Sudan inhabit the region between Wadi Halfa in the north and Al Dabbah in the south. The main Nubian groups from north to south are the Halfaweyen, Sikut, Mahas, and Dongola. They speak the Nubian languages. In ancient times Nubians were depicted by Egyptians as having very dark skin, often shown with hooped earrings and with braided or extended hair. History[edit] A Nubian woman circa 1900 Further information: Nubia Nubians are the people of southern Egypt and northern Sudan, settling along the banks of the Nile from Aswan. The Old Nubian language is attested from the 8th century, and is thus the oldest recorded language of Africa outside of the Afro-Asiatic group. Old Nubian Manuscript The name "Nubia" or "Nubian" has a contested origin. The earliest history of ancient Nubia comes from the Paleolithic Era of 300,000 years ago. Modern Nubians[edit] Culture[edit] Religion[edit]

Mesopotamia Map showing the extent of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: بلاد الرافدين‎ (bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ (Beth Nahrain): "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria and to a much lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran. Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. Etymology Geography History Periodization Literature

Fellah For the Arabic word for success in the context of Islam, see Falah. For the star, see 67 Ophiuchi. "Fille Fellahin." A Victorian-era postcard of a young Fellahin girl of Egypt. Fellah (Arabic: فلاح‎, fallāḥ) (plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a peasant, farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa. A fellahin could be seen wearing a simple cotton robe called galabieh. Origins and usage[edit] Fellahin was the term used throughout the Middle East in the Ottoman period and later to refer to villagers and farmers.[1] Nur-eldeen Masalha translates it as "peasants,"[2] although Palestinian anthropologist Nasser Abufarha says that translation misrepresents Palestinian fellahin society, because traditional European usage refers to someone who does not own the land they farm, whereas the fellahin of Palestine own the land, and the means of production, together.[3] Fellahin in Egypt[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Assyrian people Assyrian people (Syriac: ܐܫܘܪܝܐ‎), or Syriacs[37] (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.[38][39] Some of them self-identify as Arameans,[40] or as Chaldeans.[41] They speak East Aramaic languages as well as the primary languages in their countries of residence.[42] The Assyrians are typically Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia.[43] Assyrians are predominantly Christian, mostly adhering to the East and West Syrian liturgical rites of Christianity.[48] The churches that constitute the East Syrian rite include the Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East, and Chaldean Catholic Church, whereas the churches of the West Syrian rite are the Syriac Orthodox Church and Syriac Catholic Church. Both rites use Classical Syriac as their liturgical language. History Pre-Christian history Language Early Christian period Arab conquest Culture

Turkish people Turkish people (Turkish: Türkler) are a Turkic ethnic group primarily living in Turkey, and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities have been established. Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oghuz Turkic, indigenous Anatolian, Greek, Persian, Islamic, Ottoman, and Western cultures.[86] Due to the Ottoman past, the Turkish minorities are the second largest ethnic groups in Bulgaria and Cyprus. In addition, as a result of modern migration, a Turkish diaspora has been established, particularly in Western Europe (see Turks in Europe), where large communities have been formed in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. There are also significant Turkish communities living in Australia, the former Soviet Union and North America. Etymology and ethnic identity[edit] In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers. History[edit] Seljuk era[edit] Beyliks era[edit]

East Semitic languages Approximate historical distribution of Semitic languages. East Semitic in green. The East Semitic languages are one of six divisions of the Semitic languages. The East Semitic group is attested by two distinct languages, Akkadian and Eblaite, both of which have been long extinct. They stand apart from other Semitic languages, traditionally called West Semitic, in a number of respects. Historically, it is believed that this linguistic situation came about as speakers of East Semitic languages wandered further east, settling in Mesopotamia during the third millennium BCE, as attested by Akkadian texts from this period. The word order in East Semitic may also have been influenced by Sumerian, being subject–object–verb rather than the West Semitic verb–subject–object order. Jump up ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). Huehnergard, J. 1995.