background preloader

Achaemenid Empire

Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire (/əˈkiːmənɪd/; Old Persian: Pārsa;[9][10] New Persian: شاهنشاهی هخامنشی c. 550–330 BC), or First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire in Western and Central Asia, founded in the 6th century BC by Cyrus the Great.[11] The dynasty draws its name from king Achaemenes, who ruled Persis between 705 BC and 675 BC. The empire expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world, which at around 500 BC stretched from the Indus Valley in the east to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece. The Achaemenid Empire would eventually control Egypt as well. It was ruled by a series of monarchs who unified its disparate tribes and nationalities by constructing a complex network of roads. The historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well. History[edit] Achaemenid Timeline[edit] Astronomical year numbering Origin[edit] Related:  Gilgamesh

Neo-Assyrian Empire Historical state in Mesopotamia The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform: mat Aš-šur)[a] was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC,[10][11][12] and became the largest empire of the world up until that time.[13][unreliable source?] The Assyrians perfected early techniques of imperial rule, many of which became standard in later empires.[14] The Assyrians were the first to be armed with iron weapons, and their troops employed advanced, effective military tactics.[15] The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Old Assyrian Empire (c. 2025–1378 BC), and the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–934 BC) of the Late Bronze Age. Upon the death of Ashurbanipal in 631 BC, the empire began to disintegrate due to a brutal and unremitting series of civil wars in Assyria proper. Background[edit] Assyria was originally an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th centuries BC. Middle Assyrian Empire[edit] Middle Assyrian Empire seal. 1400-1100 BCE. History[edit] A.W. Army[edit]

Balkan Federation The Balkan Federation project was a left-wing political idea to create a "Balkan federation".[1] This political concept went through three phases in its development. In the first phase the idea was articulated as a response to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. In the second phase, mostly through the interwar period (1919–36), the idea of the Balkan federation was taken up by the Balkan communist parties. The third phase is characterized by the clash between the Balkan communist leaders and Joseph Stalin, who opposed the idea during the post-World War II period. Background[edit] At first, in Belgrade in 1865 a number of radical Balkan intellectuals founded the Democratic Oriental Federation, proposing a federation from Alps to Cyprus based on political freedom and social equality. Balkan Socialist Federation[edit] Balkan Communist Federation[edit] In Albania, the communist ideas were mainly infiltrated by adjacent countries. See also[edit]

Perseus Ancient Greek hero and founder of Mycenae Etymology[edit] Because of the obscurity of the name "Perseus" and the legendary character of its bearer, most etymologists presume that it might be pre-Greek; however, the name of Perseus' native city was Greek and so were the names of his wife and relatives. There is some idea that it descended into Greek from the Proto-Indo-European language. The further origin of perth- is more obscure. Mythology[edit] Origin at Argos[edit] Perseus was the son of Zeus and Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius, King of Argos. Fearful for his future, but unwilling to provoke the wrath of the gods by killing the offspring of Zeus and his daughter, Acrisius cast the two into the sea in a wooden chest.[7] Danaë's fearful prayer, made while afloat in the darkness, has been expressed by the poet Simonides of Ceos. Overcoming the Gorgon[edit] When Perseus was grown, Polydectes came to fall in love with the beautiful Danaë. Marriage to Andromeda[edit] Oracle fulfilled[edit]

Einstein Was Right: Gravitational Waves Exist A pair of ground-based observatories known as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory, or LIGO, have definitively detected the existence of gravity waves, the National Science Foundation has announced. According to NASA, gravity waves are ripples in space-time that are created by huge accelerating bodies, such as two black holes orbiting one another. According to LIGO, they carry information about the nature of gravity and the origin of the universe that can’t otherwise be obtained. Albert Einstein first posited the existence of the waves a century ago, and they were indirectly detected by a team of astronomers in 1974 (for which those scientists won the Nobel Prize). The news of the discovery was being held for a scheduled press conference, but it was accidentally broken when photographs of a cake were posted to Twitter: Read this cake that’s in the back of the room where they are announcing the #LIGO result!

First Babylonian dynasty Map of Iraq showing important sites that were occupied by the First Babylonian Dynasty (clickable map) Maximum extent of the First Babylonian Empire during the reign of King Hammurabi's son, Samsu-iluna of Babylon reaching as far west as Tuttul (light green), c. 1750 BC – c. 1712 BC Chronology of ancient Mesopotamia showing the domination of the First Babylonian Empire between c. 1763 BC – c. 1594 BC The First Babylonian Empire is dated to c. 1830 BC – c. 1531 BC, and comes after the end of Sumerian power with the destruction of the 3rd dynasty of Ur, and the subsequent Isin Dynasty. The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A[1] and a Babylonian King List B.[2] In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage. Before the First Dynasty[edit] First Dynasty: short chronology[edit] The short chronology is: Origins of the First Dynasty[edit] The first kings of the dynasty[edit] King Hammurabi[edit] Seals[edit]

Aristotle on Perceiving Objects // Reviews // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // University of Notre Dame In this important new book, Anna Marmodoro considers Aristotle's theory of sense perception, focusing especially on his views on the unity of the perceptual faculty. Marmodoro's main goal is to defend a "metaphysically robust" interpretation of Aristotle's views on the "common sense," which she claims performs functions irreducible to those performed by the five individual senses. She argues that Aristotle needed to posit a genuinely unified common sense to account for the possibility of "complex perceptual content," by which she means content that incorporates input from more than one sense. In taking this stance, she defends what might be considered a more traditional view of the common sense and its role in perception for Aristotle, in self-conscious opposition to the more deflationary approaches favored by some recent authors (e.g., Gregoric 2007, Johansen 2012). In a long first chapter, Marmodoro considers the "metaphysical foundations" of Aristotle's theory of perception.

Medusa Goddess from Greek mythology In Greek mythology, Medusa (; Ancient Greek: Μέδουσα, romanized: Médousa, lit. 'guardian, protectress'),[1] also called Gorgo, was one of the three Gorgons. Medusa is generally described as a human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair; those who gazed into her eyes[citation needed] would turn to stone. Most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto,[2] although the author Hyginus makes her the daughter of Gorgon and Ceto.[3] Medusa was beheaded by the Greek hero Perseus, who then used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon[4] until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield. Mythology Near them their sisters three, the Gorgons, winged With snakes for hair—hatred of mortal man[5] In most versions of the story, she was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who was sent to fetch her head by King Polydectes of Seriphus because Polydectes wanted to marry Perseus's mother. Modern interpretations

Apotropaic magic Type of magic intended to turn away harm or evil influences Symbols[edit] Egypt[edit] An ancient Egyptian apotropaic wand shows a procession of protective deities. Objects were often used in these rituals in order to facilitate communication with the gods. Likewise, protective amulets bearing the likenesses of gods and goddesses like Taweret were commonly worn. Ancient Greece[edit] Among the ancient Greeks, the most widely used image intended to avert evil was that of the Gorgon, the head of which now may be called the Gorgoneion, which features wild eyes, fangs, and protruding tongue. Evil eye[edit] Eyes were often painted to ward off the evil eye. Grotesquerie[edit] Similarly the grotesque faces carved into pumpkin lanterns (and their earlier counterparts, made from turnips, swedes or beets) at Halloween are meant to avert evil: this season was Samhain, the Celtic new year. Other[edit] Mirrors and other shiny objects were believed to deflect the evil eye. Good luck tokens and charms[edit]

Gorgoneion A wooden door panel intended to guard the house from an unwelcome guest (Thomas Regnaudin, former Hôtel des Ambassadeurs de Hollande, rue vieille du Temple, Paris c. 1660). In Ancient Greece, the Gorgoneion (Greek: Γοργόνειον) was a special apotropaic amulet showing the Gorgon head, used most famously by the Olympian deities Athena and Zeus: both are said to have worn the gorgoneion as a protective pendant,[1] and often are depicted wearing it. It established their descent from earlier deities considered to remain powerful. Origin[edit] According to Marija Gimbutas, gorgoneia represent certain aspects of the Mother Goddess cult associated with "dynamic life energy" and asserts that the images may be related to a cultural continuity persisting since Neolithic examples. Development[edit] The direct frontal stare, "seemingly looking out from its own iconographical context and directly challenging the viewer",[4] was highly unusual in ancient Greek art. History[edit] Gallery[edit] Sources[edit]

Nabataeans Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (; Arabic: ٱلْأَنْبَاط‎ al-ʾAnbāṭ , compare Ancient Greek: Ναβαταῖος; Latin: Nabataeus), were an ancient Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the southern Levant.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Their settlements—most prominently the assumed capital city of Raqmu (present-day Petra, Jordan)[1]—gave the name Nabatene to the Arabian borderland that stretched from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. The Nabataeans were one of several nomadic Bedouin tribes that roamed the Arabian Desert in search of pasture and water for their herds.[8] They emerged as a distinct civilization and political entity between the second and fourth century BCE,[9] with their kingdom centered around a loosely controlled trading network that brought considerable wealth and influence across the ancient world. Origins[edit] The precise origin of this specific tribe of Arab nomads remains uncertain. Culture[edit] Religion[edit]

Petra Ancient historical site in Jordan The trading business gained the Nabataeans considerable revenue and Petra became the focus of their wealth. The Nabataeans were accustomed to living in the barren deserts, unlike their enemies, and were able to repel attacks by taking advantage of the area's mountainous terrain. They were particularly skillful in harvesting rainwater, agriculture and stone carving. Although the Nabataean kingdom became a client state of the Roman Empire in the first century BC, it was only in 106 AD that it lost its independence. Access to the city is through a 1.2-kilometre-long (3⁄4 mi) gorge called the Siq, which leads directly to the Khazneh. Importance in antiquity[edit] Pliny the Elder and other writers identify Petra as the capital of the Nabataean Kingdom and the centre of their caravan trade. Description[edit] Water control[edit] Access routes[edit] The narrow passage (Siq) that leads to Petra Hellenistic architecture[edit] City centre[edit] Royal Tombs[edit] Notes

Manungal Hymn to the goddess Nungal by a scribe accused of a capital offense Manungal (or simply Nungal) is a goddess of the underworld, worshipped by the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Akkadians. She is the consort of the god Birdu. Her title was the "Queen of the Ekur" where she held the "tablet of life" and carried out judgement on the wicked.[1][2] ^ Sjöberg Ake., "Nungal in the Ekur," Archiv für Orientforschung 24, pp. 19-46, 1976.^ Frymer, Tikva Simone., "The Nungal Hymn and the Ekur-prison", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 20, pp. 78-89, 1967. Jordan, Michael.

Asag In the Sumerian mythological poem Lugal-e, Asag or Azag, is a monstrous demon, so hideous that his presence alone makes fish boil alive in the rivers. He was said to be accompanied into battle by an army of rock demon offspring—born of his union with the mountains themselves. References[edit] Black, J. External links[edit] Ninurta defeats the Asag—ETCSL tablet translation