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Achaemenid Empire

Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire (/əˈkiːmənɪd/; Old Persian: Pārsa;[9][10] New Persian: شاهنشاهی هخامنشی c. 550–330 BC), or First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire in Western and Central Asia, founded in the 6th century BC by Cyrus the Great.[11] The dynasty draws its name from king Achaemenes, who ruled Persis between 705 BC and 675 BC. The empire expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world, which at around 500 BC stretched from the Indus Valley in the east to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece. The Achaemenid Empire would eventually control Egypt as well. It was ruled by a series of monarchs who unified its disparate tribes and nationalities by constructing a complex network of roads. The historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well. History[edit] Achaemenid Timeline[edit] Astronomical year numbering Origin[edit] Related:  MesopotamianWikipedia C

Neo-Babylonian Empire The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.[1] During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. Yet, a year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler Assurbanipal in 627 BC, Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar the Chaldean. In alliance with the Medes, the city of Nineveh was sacked in 612 BC, and the seat of empire was again transferred to Babylonia. The Neo-Babylonian period ended with the reign of Nabonidus in 539 BC. Historical background[edit] Generally, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status under the Assyrian rule. Revival of old traditions[edit] After Babylonia regained its independence, Neo-Babylonian rulers were deeply conscious of the antiquity of their heritage, and pursued an arch-traditionalist policy, reviving much of their ancient Sumero-Akkadian culture. Cultural and economic life[edit] Neo-Babylonian dynasty[edit]

Mary Pickford Mary Pickford (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was a Canadian-American motion picture actress, co-founder of the film studio United Artists and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[2] Known as "America's Sweetheart",[3][4] "Little Mary"[5] and the "girl with the curls",[5] she was one of the Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood and a significant figure in the development of film acting. Because her international fame was triggered by moving images, she is a watershed figure in the history of modern celebrity, and as one of silent film's most important performers and producers, her contract demands were central to shaping the Hollywood industry. In consideration of her contributions to American cinema, the American Film Institute named Pickford 24th among the greatest female stars of all time. Early life[edit] Mary Pickford was born Gladys Marie Smith[6] in Toronto, Ontario. Career[edit] Early years[edit] Mary Pickford, 1916 Stardom[edit]

Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: [6] Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بزرگ c. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC[7]), commonly known as Cyrus the Great,[8] also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.[9] Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East,[9] expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen.[10] His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. He also proclaimed what has been identified by scholars and archaeologists[who?] The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. So said the Lord to His anointed one, to Cyrus Background[edit] Etymology[edit] Dynastic history[edit]

Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (/sɨˈluːsɪd/; from Greek: Σελεύκεια, Seleúkeia) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire created by Alexander the Great.[4][5][6][7] Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Kuwait, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and northwest parts of India. History[edit] Partition of Alexander's empire[edit] Alexander conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, within a short time frame and died young, leaving an expansive empire of partly Hellenised culture without an adult heir. Rise of Seleucus[edit] The Kingdoms of the Diadochi circa 303 BC Alexander's generals (the Diadochi) jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire. Westward expansion[edit] An overextended domain[edit] Revival (223–191 BC)[edit]

University of Tehran The University of Tehran (Persian: دانشگاه تهران‎), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university. Based on its historical, socio-cultural and political pedigree, as well as its research and teaching profile, UT has been nicknamed "The mother university of Iran" (Persian: دانشگاه مادر‎). It is almost always ranked as the best university in Iran in national and international rankings.[2][3] It is also the premier knowledge producing institute among all OIC countries.[4] The university offers 111 bachelor degree programs, 177 masters' degree programs, and 156 Ph.D. programs.[5] Many of the departments were absorbed into the University of Tehran from the Dar al-Funun established in 1851 and the Tehran School of Political Sciences established in 1899. The University of Tehran is known as the symbol of higher education in Iran. History[edit] Colleges[edit] At present, UT comprises 40 faculties, institutes, as well as centers of research and education. Emblems[edit]

Darius I Darius is mentioned in the Biblical books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Haggai, and Zechariah. Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it. He organized a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. Darius also worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon and Egypt. Darius devised a codification of laws for Egypt. He also had the cliff-face Behistun Inscription carved, an autobiography of great modern linguistic significance. Etymology[edit] Dārīus and Dārēus are the Latin form of the Greek Dareios (Δαρεῖος), itself from Old Persian Dārayauš (𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎢𐏁), which is a shortened form of Dārayavauš (𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁). The Modern Persian form is Dāryūsh (داریوش). Primary sources[edit] Darius left a tri-lingual monumental relief on Mount Behistun which was written in Elamite, Old Persian and Babylonian between his coronation and his death.

Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an empire in Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC.[1] During this period, Assyria assumed a position as the most powerful state on earth, successfully eclipsing Babylonia, Egypt, Urartu/Armenia[2] and Elam for dominance of the Near East, Asia Minor, Caucasus, North Africa and east Mediterranean, though not until the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC[3][4] did it become a vast empire. The Neo-Assyrian Empire succeeded the Middle Assyrian period and Middle Assyrian Empire (14th to 10th centuries BC). Some scholars, such as Richard Nelson Frye, regard the Neo-Assyrian Empire to be the first real empire in human history.[5] During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language.[5] Historical context[edit] Assyria was originally an Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th to 24th centuries BC. Pre-reform Assyrian Empire 911-745 BC[edit] Expansion up to 858 BC[edit]

Negev Bedouin The Negev Bedouin (Arabic: بدو النقب‎, Badū an-Naqab; Hebrew: הבדואים בנגב‎ Habeduim Banegev) are traditionally pastoral nomadic Arab tribes living in the Negev region in Israel. From 1858 during Ottoman rule, a process of sedentarization was imposed on the Negev Bedouin which accelerated after the founding of Israel.[4] In the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, most resettled in neighbouring regions. Between 1968 and 1989, Israel built seven townships in the northeast of the Negev for the Bedouin population, with about half of them relocating to these areas. Others remained in unrecognized villages built without planning which lacked basic services such as electricity and running water. The Bedouin population in the Negev numbers 200,000-210,000. The rate of growth of the Negev Bedouin is the highest in the world – the Bedouin population doubles its size every 15 years.[9] Characteristics[edit] Al-Tarabin tribe Sheikhs year 1934 in Beer Sheva Goats grazing in the township of Tel Sheva History[edit]

Persepolis Persepolis (Old Persian: Pārśa,[2] New Persian: پرسپولیس) literary meaning "city of Persians",[3] was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BC). Persepolis is situated 70 km northeast of city of Shiraz in the Fars Province in Iran. The earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BC. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.[4] Name[edit] To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Pārsa (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿). Construction[edit] Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BC. Darius ordered the construction of the Apadana Palace and the Council Hall (the Tripylon or three-gated hall), the main imperial Treasury and its surroundings. Archaeological research[edit] Odoric of Pordenone passed through Persepolis c.1320 on his way to China. Persepolitan architecture is noted for its use of wooden columns. Geographic Location[edit] Ruins[edit]

Kassite Kassite is a rare mineral whose chemical formula is CaTi2O4(OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system and forms radiating rosettes and pseudo-hexagonal tabular crystals which are commonly twinned. Kassite crystals are brownish pink to pale yellow in color, are translucent, and have an adamantine luster. Cleavage is distinctly visible, and the crystals are very brittle. It was first described in 1965 in the Afrikanda pyroxenite massif, a formation on Russia's Kola Peninsula and was named for Nikolai Grigorievich Kassin (1885–1949), a prominent Russian geologist. It occurs as miarolytic cavity fillings of alkalic pegmatites in the Kola occurrence and in nepheline syenite in the Magnet Cove igneous complex of Arkansas, USA.

Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Background[edit] In 1925, after years of civil war, turmoil and foreign intervention, Persia (later called the Imperial State of Iran in 1935) was unified under the rule of Reza Khan, who crowned himself to become Rezā Shāh that same year. Rezā Shāh set on an ambitious program of economic, cultural, and military modernization. Iran, which had been a completely backward,[3] divided, and isolated country under the rule of the Qajar Dynasty, was now rapidly evolving into a modern industrial state. For many decades, Iran and the German Empire had cultivated ties, partly as a counter to the imperial ambitions of Britain and the Russian Empire (and later, the Soviet Union). Nevertheless, British propaganda began to accuse Iran of supporting Nazism and being pro-German.[2] Invasion[edit] The Iranians claimed that the invasion was an undeclared surprise attack,[10] though it was preceded by a visible build-up of forces. Soviet and Indian soldiers meet in late August. Military operations[edit]

Mesopotamian religion The god Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Sumerian and East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian and later migrant Arameans and Chaldeans, living in Mesopotamia (a region encompassing modern Iraq, Kuwait, southeast Turkey and northeast Syria) that dominated the region for a period of 4200 years from the fourth millennium BCE throughout Mesopotamia to approximately the 10th century CE in Assyria.[1] Mesopotamian polytheism was the only religion in ancient Mesopotamia for thousands of years before entering a period of gradual decline beginning between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE. Reconstruction[edit] As with most dead religions, many aspects of the common practices and intricacies of the doctrine have been lost and forgotten over time. History[edit] Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia. Akkadian names first appear in king lists of these states circa 2800 BCE. Religion in the Neo-Assyrian Empire[edit] "Enlil!

Leo Frank Leo Max Frank (April 17, 1884 – August 17, 1915) was a Jewish-American factory superintendent whose murder conviction and extrajudicial hanging in 1915 by a lynch mob planned and led by prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia, drew attention to questions of antisemitism in the United States.[2] He was posthumously pardoned in 1986 which the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles stated was "in an effort to heal old wounds," without addressing the question of guilt or innocence.[3] An engineer and superintendent of the National Pencil Company in Atlanta, Frank was convicted on August 25, 1913, of the murder of one of his factory workers, 13-year-old Mary Phagan. She had been strangled on April 26 and was found dead in the factory cellar the next morning. Frank was the last person known to have seen her alive, and there were allegations that he had flirted with her before. His trial became the focus of powerful class, regional, and political interests. Background Leo Frank Mary Phagan