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Pythagoras

Pythagoras
Pythagoras of Samos (/pɪˈθæɡərəs/; Ancient Greek: Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος Pythagóras ho Sámios “Pythagoras the Samian”, or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek; c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC)[1][2] was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down centuries after he lived, so very little reliable information is known about him. He was born on the island of Samos, and might have travelled widely in his youth, visiting Egypt and other places seeking knowledge. Around 530 BC, he moved to Croton, in Magna Graecia, and there set up a religious sect. His followers pursued the religious rites and practices developed by Pythagoras and studied his philosophical theories. Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religion in the late 6th century BC. Biographical sources Life After his travels, Pythagoras moved (around 530 BC) to Croton, in Italy (Magna Graecia). Writings Related:  Philosophers

Sophocles Life[edit] A marble relief of a poet, perhaps Sophocles Sophocles, the son of Sophilus, was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Colonus Hippius in Attica, which was to become a setting for one of his plays, and he was probably born there.[2][6] He was born a few years before the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC: the exact year is unclear, although 497/6 is the most likely.[2][7] Sophocles was born into a wealthy family (his father was an armour manufacturer) and was highly educated. Sophocles' first artistic triumph was in 468 BC, when he took first prize in the Dionysia theatre competition over the reigning master of Athenian drama, Aeschylus.[2][8] According to Plutarch, the victory came under unusual circumstances. Instead of following the usual custom of choosing judges by lot, the archon asked Cimon and the other strategoi present to decide the victor of the contest. Works and legacy[edit] Portrait of the Greekactor Euiaon in Sophocles' Andromeda, c. 430 BC.

Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: Ἀρχιμήδης; c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.[1] Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors.[2] Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Biography Archimedes was born c. 287 BC in the seaport city of Syracuse, Sicily, at that time a self-governing colony in Magna Graecia, located along the coast of Southern Italy. Discoveries and inventions Archimedes' principle

Diogenes Laërtius Diogenes Laertius (/daɪˈɒdʒɨniːz leɪˈɜrʃiəs/;[1] Greek: Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios; fl. c. 3rd century CE) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers. Nothing is known about his life, but his surviving Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a principal source for the history of Greek philosophy. Life[edit] Nothing is definitively known about his life, but Laertius must have lived after Sextus Empiricus (c. 200 CE), whom he mentions, and before Stephanus of Byzantium and Sopater of Apamea (c. 500 CE), who quote him. His work makes no mention of Neoplatonism, even though it is addressed to a woman who was "an enthusiastic Platonist".[2] Hence he is assumed to have flourished in the first half of the 3rd century, during the reign of Alexander Severus (222–235) and his successors.[3] The origin of the name "Laertius" is also uncertain. His home town is unknown (at best uncertain, even according to a hypothesis that Laertius refers to his origin). Writings[edit] Notes[edit]

Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known as Seneca the Younger or simply Seneca /ˈsɛnɪkə/; c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. While he was forced to commit suicide for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero, he may have been innocent.[1][2] His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, called Gallio in the Bible, and his nephew was the poet Lucan. Biography[edit] He was born in Cordoba in Spain,[3] and raised in Rome, [4] where he was trained in rhetoric and philosophy (ref. - p.31).[5] Caligula and Fabius, were critcs of his works and Columella, Pliny, Tacitus and Dio proponents.[8] This Baroque marble imaginary portrait bust of Seneca, by an anonymous sculptor of the 17th century (Museo del Prado). Imperial advisor[edit] Retirement[edit] Disgrace and suicide[edit] Legacy[edit]

Xenophon Xenophon (/ˈzɛnəfən/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν, Xenophōn, Greek pronunciation: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn]; c. 430 – 354 BC), son of Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens, also known as Xenophon of Athens, was a Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates. While not referred to as a philosopher by his contemporaries, his status as such is recently a popular topic of debate. He is known for writing about the history of his own times, the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC, especially for his account of the final years of the Peloponnesian War. His Hellenica, which recounts these times, is considered to be the continuation of Thucydides’ The Peloponnesian War. His youthful participation in the failed campaign of Cyrus the Younger to claim the Persian throne inspired him to write about the Persian empire and its history. Life[edit] Early years[edit] Little is known about Xenophon other than what he wrote about himself. Anabasis[edit] Expedition with Cyrus[edit] Return[edit] Exile and Death[edit]

Socrates Socrates (/ˈsɒkrətiːz/;[2] Greek: Σωκράτης [sɔːkrátɛːs], Sōkrátēs; 470/469 – 399 BC)[1] was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato".[3] Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. Socratic problem Nothing written by Socrates remains extant. Socrates as a figure Socrates as a philosopher Biography Early life Military service Arrest of Leon Trial and death Notes

Hippocrate Hipocrat din Cos - Bust aflat în "Galleria degli Uffizi", Florenţa Hipocrat, Hipocrate sau Hippocrates din Cos (n. cca. 460 î.Hr. pe insula Cos din Arhipelagul insulelor Sporade, d. cca. 370 î.Hr. în localitatea Larissa din Tessalia) a fost cel mai vestit medic al Greciei antice și este considerat părintele medicinei. Numele lui este legat de Jurământul lui Hipocrat, un adevărat codice moral al unui medic în exercitarea profesiunii sale, jurământ prestat și în zilele noastre în multe universități de către absolvenții facultăților de medicină. Viața[modificare | modificare sursă] Născut într-o familie ce aparținea cultului lui Esculap (gr. Activitatea[modificare | modificare sursă] Prin observațiile făcute asupra manifestărilor bolilor și descrierea lor amănunțită, precum și prin încercările de a explica procesele patologice pe baze naturale și raționale, Hipocrat a contribuit - în limitele posibilităților din vremea sa - la eliberarea medicinei de superstiții și misticism.

Herodot Herodot şi Tucidide Bustul lui Herodot din Bodrum, orașul său natal Herodot din Halicarnas/Halikarnassos (greacă: Ήροδοτος, Herodotos, n. 484 î.Hr. - d. cca. 425 î.Hr.) a fost un istoric grec. S-a născut într-o familie aristocratică din orașul Halicarnas (în greacă Halikarnassos, azi Bodrum, Turcia). Opera[modificare | modificare sursă] Fragment din "Istorii" de Herodot. Reconstrucţia harţii lumii imaginate de Herodot. Opera sa, Istorii, este o capodoperă literară cu multe digresiuni și anedocte, măiestrit inserate în istorisirile sale, scrisă în dialect ionic. În opera sa Historiai (Istorii), redactată în dialect ionic și împărțită în epoca elenistică în 9 cărți, Herodot își propune programatic să abordeze prima mare confruntare dintre lumea orientală (Asia) și cea apuseană (Grecia), dintre despotismul oriental și democrația elenă, culminând cu războaiele medice. Opera sa este alcătuită din 9 cărți, fiecare purtînd numele unei Muze, structurată astfel: Decesul[modificare | modificare sursă]

Euripide Euripide, bust Euripide (n. 480 î.Hr. - d. 406 î.Hr.) a fost un poet tragic grec. Aristotel l-a supranumit „poetul tragic prin excelență”. Alături de Eschil și Sofocle, Euripide face parte din celebra triadă a poeților dramatici eleni, care au pus bazele tragediei clasice. Din vasta operă a lui Euripide (circa 90 de piese) s-au păstrat 17 tragedii și o dramă satirică (între care „Ion, Ifigenia în Aulis, Troienele, Rugătoarele, Fenicienele, Heraclizii, Oreste, Hecuba, Medeea”.) Euripide a fost totodată un inovator al teatrului antic grec: a restrâns în continuare rolul corului și a adus, alături de elementele tragice, și elemente comice, prevestind astfel drama. Euripide a inspirat mari scriitori ca Racine, Corneille, Voltaire, Lessing, Goethe ș.a. Opere[modificare | modificare sursă] Tragedii[modificare | modificare sursă] Satire[modificare | modificare sursă] Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă] Dicționar Enciclopedic Român (Q-Z), Editura politică, București, 1966

Sofocle Sofocle (Greacă veche Σοφοκλῆς-Sofokles - n. cca. 496 î.Hr. - d. 406 î.Hr.) a fost un poet tragic grec. Împreună cu Eschil și Euripide a pus bazele tragediei clasice grecești[1]. Aduce însemnate inovații în tehnica teatrală: renunțarea la conexiunea trilogiei prin crearea de piese independente, mărirea numărului choreuților de la 12 la 15, introducerea celui de-al treilea actor, dezvoltarea dialogului, importanța acordată decorului și costumelor[1]. Opera marelui poet tragic, continuator al lui Eschil, cuprinde peste 120 de piese[2] (după diverse păreri și izvoare, numărul pieselor e de 123, 130, 133, ba chiar și de 140), dintre care ne-au mai rămas în întregime numai șapte. Viața și caracterul[modificare | modificare sursă] Scriitorul s-a născut în anul 496 î. Adolescența, tinerețea și maturitatea[modificare | modificare sursă] La 16 ani a fost ales de compatrioții săi conducător al tinerilor însărcinați a celebra prin cântări și jocuri aniversarea glorioasă a Salaminei.

Tucidide Bustul lui Tucidide, aflat la Royal Ontario Museum. Tucidide (greacă Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídês, cca 460-398 î.Hr., fiul lui Oloros) a fost un om politic și istoric atenian, autor al unei vaste monografii asupra Războiului peloponesiac, desfășurat între Atena (ajutată de Liga de la Delos) și Sparta (împreună cu aliatele ei) în cea de-a doua jumătate a secolului V î.Hr. Tucidide este implicat direct în evenimentele pe care le relatează, fiind strateg al Atenei. "Istoria Războiului Peloponesiac" prezintă informații importante pe care autorul ni le oferă, dând în același timp dovadă de o superioară pătrundere și de imparțialitate, ceea ce îl ridică în rândul celor mai de seamă reprezentanți ai istoriografiei din toate timpurile. Tucidide este cunoscut pentru importantul său text istoric despre războiul peloponesiac, care spre deosebire de stilul povestirilor istorice de înainte, era structurat în ordine cronologică, subiectul fiind abordat direct. Timpul însă a fost folosit cu înțelepciune.

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