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Non-Euclidean geometry

Non-Euclidean geometry
Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry. As Euclidean geometry lies at the intersection of metric geometry and affine geometry, non-Euclidean geometry arises when either the metric requirement is relaxed, or the parallel postulate is set aside. In the latter case one obtains hyperbolic geometry and elliptic geometry, the traditional non-Euclidean geometries. When the metric requirement is relaxed, then there are affine planes associated with the planar algebras which give rise to kinematic geometries that have also been called non-Euclidean geometry. Another way to describe the differences between these geometries is to consider two straight lines indefinitely extended in a two-dimensional plane that are both perpendicular to a third line: History[edit] Early history[edit] Terminology[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-Euclidean_geometry

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Symplectic geometry Symplectic geometry is a branch of differential geometry and differential topology that studies symplectic manifolds; that is, differentiable manifolds equipped with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form. Symplectic geometry has its origins in the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics where the phase space of certain classical systems takes on the structure of a symplectic manifold. Every Kähler manifold is also a symplectic manifold. Well into the 1970s, symplectic experts were unsure whether any compact non-Kähler symplectic manifolds existed, but since then many examples have been constructed (the first was due to William Thurston); in particular, Robert Gompf has shown that every finitely presented group occurs as the fundamental group of some symplectic 4-manifold, in marked contrast with the Kähler case. Name[edit]

Non-Euclidean geometry Version for printing In about 300 BC Euclid wrote The Elements, a book which was to become one of the most famous books ever written. Euclid stated five postulates on which he based all his theorems: To draw a straight line from any point to any other. Non-Euclidean Geometry In three dimensions, there are three classes of constant curvature geometries. All are based on the first four of Euclid's postulates, but each uses its own version of the parallel postulate. The "flat" geometry of everyday intuition is called Euclidean geometry (or parabolic geometry), and the non-Euclidean geometries are called hyperbolic geometry (or Lobachevsky-Bolyai-Gauss geometry) and elliptic geometry (or Riemannian geometry).

Hastur Hastur (The Unspeakable One, Him Who Is Not to be Named, Assatur, Xastur, H'aaztre, or Kaiwan) is an entity of the Cthulhu Mythos. Hastur first appeared in Ambrose Bierce's short story "Haïta the Shepherd" (1893) as a benign god of shepherds. Hastur is briefly mentioned in H.P. Lovecraft's The Whisperer in Darkness; previously, Robert W. Chambers had used the name in his own stories to represent both a person and a place associated with the names of several stars, including Aldebaran.[1]

Riemannian geometry Elliptic geometry is also sometimes called "Riemannian geometry". Riemannian geometry is the branch of differential geometry that studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric, i.e. with an inner product on the tangent space at each point which varies smoothly from point to point. This gives, in particular, local notions of angle, length of curves, surface area, and volume. Body updated version is published in Mathematical Intelligencer, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 17-28, Spring 2001. David W. Henderson Department of Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, dwh2@cornell.edu Dave's short course in trigonometry Table of Contents Who should take this course? Trigonometry for you Your background How to learn trigonometry Applications of trigonometry Astronomy and geography Engineering and physics Mathematics and its applications What is trigonometry? Trigonometry as computational geometry Angle measurement and tables Background on geometry The Pythagorean theorem An explanation of the Pythagorean theorem Similar triangles Angle measurement The concept of angle Radians and arc length Exercises, hints, and answers About digits of accuracy Chords What is a chord? Ptolemy’s sum and difference formulas Ptolemy’s theorem The sum formula for sines The other sum and difference formulas Summary of trigonometric formulas Formulas for arcs and sectors of circles Formulas for right triangles Formulas for oblique triangles Formulas for areas of triangles Summary of trigonometric identities More important identities Less important identities Truly obscure identities

Cthulhu Cthulhu[1] is a fictional cosmic entity that first appeared in the short story "The Call of Cthulhu", published in the pulp magazine Weird Tales in 1928. The character was created by writer H. P. Lovecraft. Spelling and pronunciation[edit] Special values of L-functions In mathematics, the study of special values of L-functions is a subfield of number theory devoted to generalising formulae such as the Leibniz formula for pi, namely by the recognition that expression on the left-hand side is also L(1) where L(s) is the Dirichlet L-function for the Gaussian field. This formula is a special case of the analytic class number formula, and in those terms reads that the Gaussian field has class number 1, and also contains four roots of unity, so accounting for the factor ¼. There are two families of conjectures, formulated for general classes of L-functions (the very general setting being for L-functions L(s) associated to Chow motives over number fields), the division into two reflecting the questions of:

Matrix (mathematics) Each element of a matrix is often denoted by a variable with two subscripts. For instance, a2,1 represents the element at the second row and first column of a matrix A. Applications of matrices are found in most scientific fields. In every branch of physics, including classical mechanics, optics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, and quantum electrodynamics, they are used to study physical phenomena, such as the motion of rigid bodies. Lin Carter deities The Lin Carter deities are supernatural entities created for the Cthulhu Mythos universe of shared fiction by horror writer Lin Carter. Aphoom-Zhah[edit] Aphoom-Zhah (The Cold Flame) debuted in Lin Carter's short story "The Acolyte of the Flame" (1985)[1]—although the being was first mentioned in an earlier tale by Carter, "The Horror in the Gallery" (1976).

Homotopy The two dashed paths shown above are homotopic relative to their endpoints. The animation represents one possible homotopy. Formal definition[edit] An isotopy of a coffee cup into a doughnut (torus). If we think of the second parameter of H as time then H describes a continuous deformation of f into g: at time 0 we have the function f and at time 1 we have the function g. We can also think of the second parameter as a "slider control" that allows us to smoothly transition from f to g as the slider moves from 0 to 1, and vice versa. Philosophy of Mathematics First published Tue Sep 25, 2007; substantive revision Wed May 2, 2012 If mathematics is regarded as a science, then the philosophy of mathematics can be regarded as a branch of the philosophy of science, next to disciplines such as the philosophy of physics and the philosophy of biology. However, because of its subject matter, the philosophy of mathematics occupies a special place in the philosophy of science. Whereas the natural sciences investigate entities that are located in space in time, it is not at all obvious that this also the case of the objects that are studied in mathematics.

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