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September 11 attacks

September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)[nb 1] were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. Four passenger airliners were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists so they could be flown into buildings in suicide attacks. Two of those planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. Within two hours, both towers collapsed with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the WTC complex, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. Background Attackers al-Qaeda The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden Motives Attacks Related:  Conspiracy Theories

9/11 conspiracy theories The collapse of the two World Trade Center towers and the nearby WTC7 (in this photo, the brown building to the left of the towers) is a major focus of 9/11 conspiracy theories. 9/11 conspiracy theories attribute the planning and execution of the September 11 attacks to parties other than, or in addition to, al-Qaeda[1] or claim there was advance knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials.[2] Government investigations and independent scientific reviews have found no evidence for the theories.[3][4] Proponents of these conspiracy theories claim there are inconsistencies in the official conclusions, or evidence which was overlooked.[5] Terminology Within the context of 9/11 conspiracy theories, the terms "mainstream account", "official account" and "official conspiracy theory" all refer to: History Since the attacks, a variety of conspiracy theories have been put forward in Web sites, books, and films. 9/11 truth figures Steven E. Types of conspiracy Theories Foreknowledge

Operation Gladio B Operation Gladio B was an FBI codename adopted in 1997 for relations between US intelligence, the Pentagon, and Al Qaeda. The name refers to the original Operation Gladio, in which US intelligence had relations with anti-communist groups in Europe. According to Sibel Edmonds, Gladio B identified, among other things, meetings between US intelligence and Ayman al-Zawahiri in Azerbaijan between 1997 and 2001, with al-Zawahiri and other mujahideen being transported by NATO aircraft to Central Asia and the Balkans. These and related allegations were seemingly confirmed by Sunday Times journalists in 2008 by speaking to Pentagon and MI6 sources; however the journalists were prevented from publishing these allegations when the second half of their 4-part series was dropped.[1][2] References[edit] See also[edit]

Oklahoma City bombing conspiracy theories A variety of conspiracy theories have been proposed regarding the Oklahoma City bombing. These theories reject all or part of the official government report. Some of these theories focus on the possibility of additional, unindicted co-conspirators or additional explosives planted inside the Murrah Federal building. Other theories allege that government employees and officials, including US President Bill Clinton, knew of the impending bombing and intentionally failed to act on that knowledge. Government investigations have been opened at various times to look into the theories. Oklahoma City Bombing[edit] At 9:02 a.m. Although the indictment against McVeigh and Nichols alleged that they conspired with "others unknown to the grand jury", prosecutors, and later McVeigh himself, said the bombing was solely the work of McVeigh and Nichols. Additional conspirators[edit] Additional explosives[edit] US federal government involvement[edit] Investigations[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Operation Paperclip Operation Paperclip was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program used to recruit the scientists of Nazi Germany for employment by the United States in the aftermath of World War II. It was conducted by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), and in the context of the burgeoning Cold War. One purpose of Operation Paperclip was to deny German scientific expertise and knowledge to the Soviet Union[1] and the United Kingdom,[2] as well as inhibiting post-war Germany from redeveloping its military research capabilities. Although the JIOA's recruitment of German scientists began after the Allied victory in Europe on May 8, 1945, U.S. To circumvent President Truman's anti-Nazi order and the Allied Potsdam and Yalta agreements, the JIOA worked independently to create false employment and political biographies for the scientists. The Osenberg List[edit] Identification[edit] Beginning on 19 July 1945, the U.S. Capture and detention[edit] The scientists[edit] In May 1945, the U.S.

Oklahoma City bombing The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. It remained the most destructive act of terrorism committed in the United States until the September 11 attacks of 2001. The bombing killed 168 people[1] and injured more than 680 others.[2] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings within a 16-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings,[3][4] causing at least an estimated $652 million worth of damage.[5] Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.[6][7] Planning[edit] Motivation[edit] Target selection[edit] Alfred P.

Operation Gladio Emblem of "Gladio", Italian branch of the NATO "stay-behind" paramilitary organizations. The motto, "Silendo Libertatem Servo", means "In being silent, I save freedom". Operation Gladio (Italian: Operazione Gladio) is the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Italy during the Cold War. Its purpose was to continue armed resistance in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion and conquest. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organizations, "Operation Gladio" is used as an informal name for all of them. Gladio was part of a series of national operations first coordinated by the Clandestine Committee of the Western Union (CCWU), founded in 1948. General stay-behind structure[edit] Operating in all of NATO and even in some neutral countries such as Spain before its 1982 admission to NATO, Gladio was first coordinated by the Clandestine Committee of the Western Union (CCWU), founded in 1948.

Iraq War Prior to the war, the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom claimed that Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed a threat to their security and that of their coalition/regional allies.[49][50][51] In 2002, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1441 which called for Iraq to completely cooperate with UN weapon inspectors to verify that Iraq was not in possession of WMD and cruise missiles. Prior to the attack, the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) found no evidence of WMD, but could not yet verify the accuracy of Iraq's declarations regarding what weapons it possessed, as their work was still unfinished. The leader of the inspectors, Hans Blix, estimated the time remaining for disarmament being verified through inspections to be "months".[nb 2][52][53][54][55] Background[edit] Iraq disarmament and pre-war intelligence[edit] UN weapons inspections resume[edit] Yellowcake uranium[edit]

Operation Paperclip Operation Paperclip (originally Operation Overcast) (1949–1990) was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program in which over 1,500 German scientists, engineers, and technicians from Nazi Germany and other foreign countries were brought to the United States for employment in the aftermath of World War II.[1] It was conducted by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), and in the context of the burgeoning Cold War. One purpose of Operation Paperclip was to deny German scientific expertise and knowledge to the Soviet Union[1] and the United Kingdom,[2] as well as inhibiting post-war Germany from redeveloping its military research capabilities. The Soviet Union had competing extraction programs known as "trophy brigades" and Operation Osoaviakhim.[3] Although the JIOA's recruitment of German scientists began after the Allied victory in Europe on May 8, 1945, U.S. President Harry Truman did not formally order the execution of Operation Paperclip until August 1945. Rocketry

War in Afghanistan (2001–present) U.S. President George W. Bush demanded that the Taliban hand over Osama bin Laden and expel al-Qaeda. The Taliban requested that bin Laden leave the country, but declined to extradite him without evidence of his involvement in the 9/11 attacks. The United States refused to negotiate and launched Operation Enduring Freedom on 7 October 2001 with the United Kingdom. In 2003, NATO assumed leadership of ISAF, with troops from 43 countries. Though vastly outgunned and outnumbered, the Taliban insurgents, most notably the Haqqani Network and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin, have waged asymmetric warfare with guerilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets and turncoat killings against coalition forces. While ISAF continued to battle the Taliban insurgency, fighting crossed into neighboring North-West Pakistan.[31] In 2004, the Pakistani Army began to clash with local tribes hosting al-Qaeda and Taliban militants. Historical background Warlord rule (1992–1996)

Edward Snowden comes forward as source of NSA leaks In an interview Sunday, Snowden said he is willing to face the consequences of exposure. “I’m not going to hide,” Snowden told The Post from Hong Kong, where he has been staying. “Allowing the U.S. government to intimidate its people with threats of retaliation for revealing wrongdoing is contrary to the public interest.” Asked whether he believes that his disclosures will change anything, he said: “I think they already have. Snowden said nobody had been aware of his actions, including those closest to him. “My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them,” he said in a note that accompanied the first document he leaked to The Post. The Guardian was the first to publicly identify Snowden, at his request. The White House said late Sunday that it would not have any comment on the matter. Although any extradition proceeding could take months or even years, experts said Snowden has not put himself in a favorable position.

Opium production in Afghanistan Harvested poppy capsules. Afghanistan opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2007 (hectares) Background (1979–present)[edit] Soviet period (1979–1989)[edit] As the Afghan government began to lose control of provinces during the Soviet invasion of 1979–80, warlords flourished and with it opium production as regional commanders searched for ways to generate money to purchase weapons, according to the UN.[7] (At this time the US was pursuing an "arms-length" supporting strategy of the Afghan freedom-fighters or Mujahideen, the main purpose being to cripple the USSR slowly into withdrawal through attrition rather than effect a quick and decisive overthrow.) As explained by Zbigniew Brzezinski: The secret operation was an excellent idea. It was alleged by the Soviets on multiple occasions that American CIA agents were helping smuggle opium out of Afghanistan, either into the West, in order to raise money for the Afghan resistance or into the Soviet Union in order to weaken it through drug addiction.

National Security Agency The National Security Agency (NSA) is a U.S. intelligence agency responsible for providing the United States government with encrypted communications (information assurance) and the reading of encrypted communications (signals intelligence) of other nations. The NSA also creates and maintains secure computer network operations for the U.S. Government and prepares for network warfare.[8] Originating as a unit to decipher code communications in World War II, it was officially formed as the NSA by President Truman in 1952. The NSA is tasked with the global monitoring, collection, decoding, translation and analysis of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, including surveillance of targeted individuals in U.S. territory. The NSA has been a matter of political controversy on several occasions in its short history. History[edit] Army predecessor[edit] Black Chamber[edit] Other so called Black Chambers were also found in Europe. Vietnam War[edit]

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