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Costs of War

Costs of War
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Géographie sociale - Epistémologie et Histoire Géographie : quelques rappels historiques Retracer, même dans les grandes lignes, l'histoire de la géographie est loin d'être une tâche aisée. Pour tenter de donner une vision d'ensemble de ce qu'est la géographie, il faut revenir sur l'histoire qui débute à la fin du XIXème siècle. La géographie se structure à partir d'une double origine Les sciences naturelles, (biologie, géologie...). Ces deux origines vont donner lieu à des oppositions et des ruptures épistémologiques, à des divergences d'approches, à des oppositions entre chercheurs au cours des deux derniers siècles. Ce sont tout d'abord les Écoles allemande et française, puis anglo-saxonne qui vont peu à peu construire et structurer l'identité de la discipline, la démarquant peu à peu de discipline déjà existante. Cliquer sur l'image pour agrandir le schéma de synthèse sur l'épistémologie de la géographie © Fabien Guillot 2006 (révisé 2009) Et la géographie sociale dans tout cela ? Haut de page Une géographie sociale implicite ?

The Ecologist: Environment, Climate Change, News, Eco, Green, Energy - The Ecologist Judge: “NSA exceeded the scope of authorized acquisition continuously” Yet another Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) judge has blasted United States intelligence officials for disregarding the court’s guidelines for domestic surveillance of American e-mail metadata traffic, a program that ran for around a decade before ending in 2011. “[National Security Agency’s] record of compliance with these rules has been poor,” wrote Judge John D. Bates in a 117-page opinion (PDF) whose date was redacted. The opinion is just one of a series of documents released and declassified late Monday evening by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). “Most notably, NSA generally disregarded the special rules for disseminating United States person information outside of NSA until it was ordered to report such disseminations and certify to the FISC that the required approval had been approved. The Bates opinion is the second of the two most revealing documents in this new tranche. Not your father's pen/trap application RAS-ma-tazz

The Chart That Should Accompany All Discussions of the Debt Ceiling - James Fallows - Politics It's this one, from yesterday's New York Times. Click for a more detailed view, though it's pretty clear as is. It's based on data from the Congressional Budget Office and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Its significance is not partisan (who's "to blame" for the deficit) but intellectual. It demonstrates the utter incoherence of being very concerned about a structural federal deficit but ruling out of consideration the policy that was largest single contributor to that deficit, namely the Bush-era tax cuts. An additional significance of the chart: it identifies policy changes, the things over which Congress and Administration have some control, as opposed to largely external shocks -- like the repercussions of the 9/11 attacks or the deep worldwide recession following the 2008 financial crisis. The point is that governments can respond to but not control external shocks. But to me it doesn't matter. From this item three months ago:

L'identité visuelle des Conseils régionaux: Leurs représentations à travers leurs logos Il semble intéressant d'aborder les Conseils régionaux par leur identité visuelle et à l'image qu'ils cherchent à donner d'eux-mêmes. Peu de régions se projettent dans le futur et la modernité. Elles sont en grande partie ancrées dans le terroir et dans leur passé historique, en faisant appel à des éléments symboliques et identitaires. Les références aux blasons se font, par contre, rares. Voici donc la signification des logos des Conseils régionaux : Alsace Une étoile bleue qui représente une France moderne et en mouvement et dont l'une des branches, en jaune ombré de bleu, situe la position géographique de l'Alsace et son rôle dans l'Union européenne par ce rappel aux couleurs du drapeau européen. Aquitaine Un A à cinq branches, symbolisant les cinq départements de la Région, sur fond bleu et vert, couleurs faisant référence à la présence du littoral et à l’existence d’un environnement rural et forestier. Auvergne Basse-Normandie Bourgogne Bretagne Centre Champagne-Ardenne Corse Franche-Comté

In Defence of Marxism Everything You Wanted to Know About the DoJ/AP Controversy Since news that the Justice Department had secretly obtained journalists’ phone records broke, the story has been developing quickly. Here is a quick overview of the issues. Check back for updates. What Happened? On May 13 Mark Sherman, of the Associated Press reported : “The Justice Department secretly obtained two months of telephone records of reporters and editors for The Associated Press in what the agency's top executive called a ‘massive and unprecedented intrusion’ into how news organizations gather the news.” The records listed outgoing calls made during April and May of 2012 from 20 phone lines at AP offices in New York, Washington and Hartford, Conn., and the AP’s line in the House of Representatives press gallery. Why Did it Happen? Reports have suggested, and recent comments by Attorney General Holder seem to confirm, that this is part of an ongoing Department of Justice criminal investigation into leaks that led to an Associate Press story in May of 2012. Why Does it Matter?

The Nauseating Debt-Ceiling 'Solution' - James Fallows - Politics I agree with Matt Miller: (needless) disaster averted, decline embraced. >>So this is what we've driven the global economy and America's credit rating to the brink for? ...This is the best the White House could salvage after inexplicably failing to insist that the debt ceiling be raised as part of December's deal to extend the Bush tax cuts -- which would have let the country avoid this unprecedented exercise in self-inflicted damage?If you put aside the talking points both sides will peddle, the disappointing contours of the emerging endgame run as follows:First, Washington will do nothing more to boost jobs and growth. The best that can be said is that the spending cuts will be tiny in the next two years, so the feds won't be contracting demand, save for the end of the stimulus. America will no doubt muddle through, as it has done so often before. Still, the major steering decisions in national policy make a difference in the long term. I hope things will look better tomorrow.

Géopolitique et guerre de l'eau ClaireKönig Enseignante Sciences Naturelles La guerre de l'eau est aujourd'hui une réalité géopolitique. D'après les estimations, la consommation d'eau douce mondiale a augmenté d'environ 1 % par an entre 1987 et 2015. Selon l'Unesco, « les pénuries et les problèmes d’accès à l’eau sont susceptibles de limiter la croissance économique ». La guerre de l'eau est en enjeu géopolitique qui concerne de nombreux territoires. Les effets incluent la maladie, la malnutrition et l'échec de récolte. Le statut de ressource vitale qui lui est attribué devrait interdire la notion même de marché de l'eau. Arturo Vittori est un architecte italien qui a notamment travaillé pour les agences spatiales européenne et américaine. D'autre part, donner une valeur économique à l'eau risque d'en priver les pays les plus faibles, qui ne disposent pas des ressources nécessaires à la couverture de leurs besoins et seraient incapables de payer pour avoir de l'eau en suffisance.

Dissent Magazine Syria Dossier: Another Failed Argument by Virginia Tilley The U.S. Government has released an "Assessment of the Syrian Government’s Use of Chemical Weapons," which argues that the Syrian regime was responsible for a devastating chemical weapons attack on civilians. The statement is presented as justification for U.S. military intervention in Syria, as punishment or deterrent against Syria for violating the international norm prohibiting use of chemical weapons. This document requires our closest attention. The following is a point-by-point response to the document’s claim that President Assad was responsible for a chemical weapons attack by the Syrian government on 21 August 2013. The full text document is extracted here for the main points. The Syrian regime maintains a stockpile of numerous chemical agents, including mustard, sarin, and VX and has thousands of munitions that can be used to deliver chemical warfare agents. The evidence supporting these assessments is the our entire concern here. Proximity to the attack is no explanation.

The debt deal:  Disaster averted, decline straight ahead This is the best the White House could salvage after inexplicably failing to insist that the debt ceiling be raised as part of December’s deal to extend the Bush tax cuts — which would have let the country avoid this unprecedented exercise in self-inflicted damage? If you put aside the talking points both sides will peddle, the disappointing contours of the emerging endgame run as follows: First, Washington will do nothing more to boost jobs and growth. Next — as to long-term deficit reduction, supposedly the reason the GOP put the country through this costly fiasco — the deal remains utterly inadequate, even if the joint congressional committee the plan would empower to address this succeeds. Here’s why. In other words, the numbers sound big and can be sold as “historic,” but they’re not even close to what’s needed. Sen. Politically, however, it’s a sufficient escape hatch. There’s a good chance this package will pass with majority Republican support.