Imaging the Antikythera Computer | Gadget Lab The oldest known computer, a scientific conundrum for more than a century, did not yield its secrets easily. Only after the most recent innovations were employed, including a $500,000 imaging system constructed in situ, was the mystery of its 81 corroded and mineralized components solved. Its journey began perhaps 2100 years ago, at the height of Roman Republic, and ended on the sea bed near Crete, waiting two millenia to be recovered by a sponge diver in 1902. It originated, perhaps, from the island of Rhodes, renowned in classical times for its automata and mechanical follies. The Antikythera mechanism, however, was more than a toy: the team of scientists behind the expensive new research announced this week that that they’d solved the puzzle of its purpose, confirming that the mechanical computer was designed to track the movements of heavenly bodies, specifically the sun, moon and planets.
A Brief History of the Internet An anecdotal history of the people and communities that brought about the Internet and the Web (Last updated 28 May 2014) A Brief History of the Internet by Walt Howe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.Based on a work at www.walthowe.com. You can also read this history in a Belorussion translation by Bohdan Zograf and a Brazilian Portuguese translation by Valério Faras. The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. When the late Senator Ted Kennedy heard in 1968 that the pioneering Massachusetts company BBN had won the ARPA contract for an "interface message processor (IMP)," he sent a congratulatory telegram to BBN for their ecumenical spirit in winning the "interfaith message processor" contract. Who was the first to use the Internet?
The Beaker People The Beaker phenomenon has been documented across Europe in the late third and early second millennia BC, defined by a particular style of pottery and, in northwestern and central Europe, its inclusion in burials. This project examines Beaker mobility, migration and diet in Britain in the period 2500-1700 BC. Since the 19th century antiquarians and archaeologists have argued whether the appearance in Britain of burials with pots known as Beakers marked the arrival of continental migrants around 2400-2200 BC. These people have been variously credited with introducing metalworking to Britain, spreading the Indo-European language group and building Stonehenge. In recent decades many prehistorians have argued that the changes in material culture were due to the introduction of a 'Beaker package' rather than a wave of immigration but isotope results from the skeleton of the Amesbury Archer, found near Stonehenge, indicate that he grew up in Europe. Related outputs Funding
Chinese Pipes BEIJING, China -- A team of Chinese scientists is to head out to the far west of the country to investigate a mystery pyramid that local legend says is a launch tower left by aliens from space. Nine scientists will travel this month to probe the origins of the 50-60 meter (165-198 ft) tall structure -- dubbed "the ET relics" -- in the western province of Qinghai, China's state-run Xinhua agency said on Wednesday. The mystery pyramid sits on Mount Baigong, has three caves with triangular openings on its facade and is filled with red-hued pipes leading into the mountain and a nearby salt water lake, Xinhua said. But a study carried out by a local smeltery suggests the pipes are very old, Liu Shaolin, the engineer who carried out the analysis, told Xinhua. Mysterious Pipes From English People Daily english.peopledaily.com.cn Three caves are found at the foot of Mount Baigong.
Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (c.23) (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain. It reformed the calendar of England and British Dominions so that the new legal year began on 1 January rather than 25 March (Lady Day); and it adopted the Gregorian calendar, as used in most of western Europe. The Parliament held that the Julian calendar then in use, and the start of the year on 25 March, were In England and Wales, the legal year 1751 was a short year of 282 days, running from 25 March to 31 December. 1752 began on 1 January. As well as adopting the Gregorian rule for leap years, Pope Gregory's rules for the date of Easter were also adopted. Scotland had already partly made the change: the year began on 1 January in 1600. William Hogarth painting (c. 1755) which is the main source for "Give us our Eleven Days" Chesterfield was behind the Act. Thus the "calendar riot" fiction was born.
Antikythera Antikythera or Anticythera (/ˌæntɪkɪˈθɪərə/; Ancient Greek: Ἀντικύθηρα Greek: Αντικύθηρα, [andiˈciθira], literally "opposite Kythera") is a Greek island lying on the edge of the Aegean Sea, between Crete and Peloponnese. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Kythera island. Antikythera may also refer to the Antikythera Strait, through which Modified Mediterranean Water enters the Sea of Crete. Its main settlement and port is Potamós (pop. 18 inhabitants in 2001 census). The only other settlements are Galanianá (pop. 17), and Charchalianá (pop. 9). Antikythera is sporadically visited by the LANE Lines ferry Vitsentzos Kornaros, on its route between Piraeus (Athens) and Kissamos-Kastelli in Crete. History The earliest known inhabitants (5th or 4th millennium BC) were likely seasonal hunters who traveled there to exploit the presence of migratory birds. Fauna Notable people Andreas Anagnostakis (1826–1897) physician References
History to Herstory Sunken cities Preserved and buried under the sea for over a thousand years, the stunning objects in the exhibition range from magnificent colossal statues to intricate gold jewellery. Sacred offerings and ritual objects reveal the cult of Osiris – the god of the underworld who held the promise of eternal life. They tell stories of political power and popular belief, myth and migration, gods and kings. Journey through centuries of encounters between two celebrated cultures, meeting iconic historical figures such as Alexander the Great, Cleopatra, Hadrian and Antinous on the way. Over the last 20 years, world-renowned archaeologist Franck Goddio and his team have excavated spectacular underwater discoveries using the latest technologies. Discover the incredible story of the remarkable relationship between the major ancient civilisations of Egypt and Greece, unveiled in this monumental new exhibition. Close
Wow! signal The Wow! signal The Wow! signal was a strong narrowband radio signal detected by Jerry R. Ehman on August 15, 1977, while he was working on a SETI project at the Big Ear radio telescope of The Ohio State University, then located at Ohio Wesleyan University's Perkins Observatory in Delaware, Ohio. The signal bore the expected hallmarks of non-terrestrial and non-Solar System origin. Interpretation of the paper chart The original printout of the Wow! Location of the signal Determining a precise location in the sky was complicated by the Big Ear telescope's use of two feed horns to search for signals, each pointing to a slightly different direction in the sky following Earth's rotation; the Wow! 19h22m24.64s ± 5s (positive horn)19h25m17.01s ± 5s (negative horn) Time variation Plot of signal strength vs time The Big Ear telescope was fixed and used the rotation of the Earth to scan the sky. Therefore, both the length of the Wow! Searches for recurrence of the signal
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It has been the unofficial global standard for decades, recognised by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union. The calendar was a refinement in 1582 to the Julian calendar amounting to a 0.002% correction in the length of the year. The motivation for the reform was to bring the date for the celebration of Easter to the time of the year in which the First Council of Nicaea had agreed upon in 325. Because the celebration of Easter was tied to the spring equinox, the Roman Catholic Church considered this steady drift in the date of Easter undesirable. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe. The Gregorian reform modified the Julian calendar's scheme of leap years as follows: Description A Gregorian year is divided into twelve months, as follows: History
Mediterranean Mystery Solved: An Ancient Artifact Counts Modern technology cracks the code of "the world's first computer." Credit: NASA Just over a century ago, sponge divers working the waters near Antikythera, a Greek island between the mainland and Crete, discovered the wreck of an ancient ship. Now, anyone who has ever gone snorkeling in Greece knows it's not unusual to swim over bits and pieces of the past, usually broken wine and grain pots that once lay in the holds of sunken sailing ships devoured by worms long ago. But what the sponge divers found was anything but usual: the pieces of a device of sorts, consisting of thirty bronze gears and dozens of smaller parts and fragments encrusted with rust and corrosion. It has been studied over the years since its discovery, and at various times scientists and archaeologists have attempted to replicate the device. "The mechanism is displayed in a Plexiglas case," says Eleni Daniels, a consultant for the museum. Owen Edwards is a contributing editor for Edutopia and Smithsonian magazines.