How and why was Stonehenge built? MOVING THE STONES click photo for enlargement The fact that Stonehenge was not built overnight does not in any way diminish the scale of the undertaking. But how could this have been achieved by a Neolithic society? Given the sheer size and weight of the stones, what ingenious devices were employed? And what of the stones? The technology was staggering. STONEHENGE FORETOLD THE SEASONS click photo for enlargement As to the purpose of Stonehenge, again we can only surmise. STONEHENGE FORETOLD THE TIME click photo for enlargement To validate this, we must look at the society of the time. → Bradshaw Foundation
Interactive Dig Tiwanaku - Revealing Ancient Bolivia The prehistoric city of Tiwanaku is located on the southern shore of the famous Lake Titicaca along the border between Bolivia and Peru. During the heyday of this city was between A.D. 500 and 950, religious artifacts from the city spread across the southern Andes, but when the conquering Inka arrived in the mid-fifteenth century, the site had been mysteriously abandoned for half a millennium. Even after its abandonment, Tiwanaku continued to be an important religious site for the local people. It later became incorporated into Inka mythology as the birthplace of mankind as the Inka built their own structures alongside the ruins. Tiwanaku remains an integral locale in the religious lives of Andean people in the turbulent present of modern Bolivia. In the summer of 2004, the archaeology field school from Harvard University excavated the location known as La Karaña, an area north of the site's monumental core. Click here for the conclusion to the 2004 season.
James A. Foshay Learning Center Advanced Placement World History Mrs. Travis This is a college-level survey class which prepares students for the national exam on Thursday, May 12 at 8 AM. The three-hour-and-five-minute exam includes a 55-minute multiple-choice section and a 130-minute free-response section. This course covers 10,000 years in eight months. Section I: Multiple-Choice The 70 multiple-choice questions cover world history from the Foundations period up to the present. Foundations period: c. 8000 B.C.E. to 600 B.C.E. Section II: Essay There are three free-response essay questions. The students will have two college-level textbooks, Traditions and Encounter: A Global Perspective by Jerry Bentley and Herbert Ziegler and Ways of the World by Robert W. Each student must have a 5-section spiral notebook, a glue stick, a box of colored pencils, and a little pencil sharpener. This is a very challenging, intense class.
The Best Twenty-Minute Workouts by Stew Smith Do you want to jump start your New Year with some great fitness ideas that you can incorporate into your fitness routine? If you are like many Americans, getting the time to exercise is challenging. But, this article is proof that you can fit fitness into your schedule on just about any "busy" day in your life. The other day, I was emailed the following question: I only have about 20-30 minutes a day to exercise. What can I do in that amount of time? The superset is a great way to workout if you have limited time. Pushup/Crunch Superset:Repeat 10 cycles of: - 10 regular pushups- 10 crunches- 10 wide pushups- 10 crunches- 10 tricep pushups- 10/10 Left/Right crunches Leg / ab Superset:Repeat 5 cycles of:- 20 squats - 20 crunches- 10 lunges per leg- 10 crunches - 20 calf raises- 20 crunches Running or Walking! How much running or walking can you do in 20-30 minutes? Six sets of:- Sprint-1/8 mile- Jog - 1/8 mile Spartan Run: Swimming? How much swimming can you do in 20-30 minutes?
Millau Viaduct The Millau Viaduct (French: le Viaduc de Millau, IPA: [vjadyk də mijo]) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. History Problems with traffic on the route from Paris to Spain along the stretch passing through the Tarn valley near the town of Millau, during the summer when the roads became jammed with holiday traffic, required construction of a bridge to span the valley. The first plans were discussed in 1987 by CETE, and by October 1991, the decision was made to build a high crossing of the Tarn River by a structure of around 2,500 m (8,200 ft). In July 1996, the jury decided in favour of a cable-stayed design with multiple spans, as proposed by the Sogelerg consortium (Michel Virlogeux and Norman Foster). Possible routes Routes of the four projects of the A75 autoroute around Millau In initial studies, four options were examined: Choosing the definitive route Choice of technical design Contractors
Introduction to the Human Journey The parent Institute of this project, The Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge, was founded on providing the basis of information available to the general public, primarily about what it means to be human: our capacities, our weaknesses, our potential. This project is under the direction of our President, Robert Ornstein PhD., with contributions from associates of ISHK, some of whom are professionals in the various fields and others interested amateurs. The future depends on our understanding who we are, and how the past has made us so: what is unchanging about Human Nature, and what we can and must change to face a world that is far different from our ancestors’ world. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis So this website begins not at the origin of the universe, or the billions of years of the development of life from the primordial slush (everyone says “primordial soup,” but that’s too appetizing). Where to begin is always a question. Plato and Aristotle by Raphael The Taj Mahal, India
Telomerase: the Ultimate Medical Breakthrough by Gary Vey for viewzone (2012) A couple of weeks ago the results of an experiment were published that offers a glimpse into the future of the human race -- a future when there is no more "getting old" and, most significantly, no cancer. But to fully appreciate what has happened, you will need to get the background story first. It is a natural desire to want to live a long life. We now understand exactly what causes aging and death -- on the molecular level. About a decade ago, it was discovered that the ends of the DNA molecular strands had a long series of meaningless code ("TTAGGG" in the language of DNA enzymes) that kept repeating and repeating. For humans, this means that most of our cells have a fixed length to their telomeres that shorten each time they make copies of themselves. Telomeres are actually chains of molecules. When a cell divides, the spiral DNA molecule must split in half and reassemble a copy of itself. The Holy Grail (enzyme): Telomerase The Cancer Problem Notes:
Bluestonehenge "Bluestonehenge" or "Bluehenge" is a prehistoric henge and stone circle monument that was discovered by the Stonehenge Riverside Project about 1 mile (1.6 km) south-east of Stonehenge in Wiltshire , England . All that currently remains of the site is the ditch of the henge and a series of stone settings, none of which is visible above ground. The site was excavated in August 2008 and again in August 2009 and is considered to be an important find by archaeologists . [ 1 ] Full details of the discovery were published in the 2010 January / February edition of British Archaeology . [ 2 ] Initial findings [ edit ] Bluestonehenge digital reconstruction - oval configuration. The monument has been tentatively dated to between about 3000 and 2400 BC, although radiocarbon dating of antler tools found at the site has only provided an approximate date of 2469 to 2286 BC for the dismantling of the stones. Context [ edit ] The henge is located beside the River Avon in West Amesbury . See also [ edit ]
A fascinating interview with China’s biggest rock star Cui Jian would probably be the first person to lament that he, at 51, is still the biggest name in Chinese rock music, and that his music last occupied the cultural zeitgeist in a dramatic 1990 concert tour. That's the impression he gives in this revealing interview with Vice, anyway. Whether you think Cui's cynicism is misplaced or not, his thoughts on the state of Chinese are revealing. Cui, often called the father or grandfather of Chinese rock, is careful when discussing the Chinese government, with which he has a complicated history. A scholar of Chinese pop music, Jonathan Campbell, has said, "I can't think of someone who has ever been more worthy than Cui Jian for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame." In this interview, Cui says that he's tried and failed many times to secure permission for another big show, but he stops short of complaining or criticizing. Here are, in order, "A Piece of Red Cloth," "Nothing to My Name," and my favorite, "Fake Monk":
Göbekli Tepe Göbekli Tepe The function of the structures is not yet clear. The most common opinion, shared by excavator Klaus Schmidt, is that they are early neolithic sanctuaries. Discovery The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1963. In 1994, Klaus Schmidt, now of the German Archaeological Institute, who had previously been working at Nevalı Çori, was looking for another site to lead a dig. The following year, he began excavating there in collaboration with the Şanlıurfa Museum. Dating View of site and excavation The imposing stratigraphy of Göbekli Tepe attests to many centuries of activity, beginning at least as early as the epipaleolithic, or Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), in the 10th millennium BC. There are a number of radiocarbon dates (presented with one standard deviation errors and calibrations to BCE): The Hd samples are from charcoal in the lowest levels of the site and would date the active phase of occupation. Plateau
101 Facts About Newgrange - Construction of Newgrange 21 Newgrange mound should be properly referred to as a cairn, because it consists of water-rolled pebbles, each of which is between 6 to 9 inches across. 22 The entire mound contains an estimated 200,000 tonnes of material, and it has been estimated construction would have taken about 30 years using a workforce of about 300. 23 It is not known with any certainty how the larger stones which form the kerb and passage and chamber of Newgrange were brought to the site. Many of these stone slabs, 550 in number, were collected from where they had been lying in the landscape. Because many of the stones were found to be weathered, it is believed they were not quarried, so there would have been a huge logistical task in finding suitable boulders dotted throughout the landscape. 24 Because Newgrange sits atop a ridge, many of the large slabs would have needed to be brought uphill, again suggesting a highly organised community was behind its construction. 25 Michael J.
Newgrange Newgrange (Irish: Sí an Bhrú) is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, about one kilometre north of the River Boyne. It was built about 3200 BC, during the Neolithic period, which makes it older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. Newgrange is a large circular mound with a stone passageway and chambers inside. The mound has a retaining wall at the front and is ringed by 'kerbstones' engraved with artwork. There is no agreement about what the site was used for, but it has been speculated that it had religious significance – it is aligned with the rising sun and its light floods the chamber on the winter solstice. After its initial use, Newgrange was sealed and it remained so for several millennia, later appearing in Irish mythology and folklore. Physical description The mound and passage tomb Cross section sketch of the passage Art Entrance stone with megalithic art. History Construction and burials Newgrange Purpose
Timeline of project management Timeline of project management - there is a general understanding that the history of modern project management started around 1950. Until 1900, projects were generally managed by creative architects and engineers themselves, among those, for example, Christopher Wren, Thomas Telford and Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Early civilizations 2570 BC Great pyramid of Giza completed. Some records remain of how the work was managed: e.g. there were managers of each of the four faces of the pyramid, responsible for their completion (subproject managers).208 BC The first major construction of the Great Wall of China. 15th - 19th century Christopher Wren (1632–1723) was a 17th-century English designer, astronomer, geometer, mathematician-physicist and one of the greatest English architects in history. 20th century 1910s The Gantt chart developed by Henry Laurence Gantt (1861–1919) 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 21st century See also List of project management topics References