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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. The objective of the treaty is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system".[2] The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. The UNFCCC was opened for signature on 9 May 1992, after an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee produced the text of the Framework Convention as a report following its meeting in New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. Treaty[edit] Later negotiations[edit] Kyoto Protocol[edit] Bali Action Plan[edit] Copenhagen and Cancún[edit] Parties[edit] Related:  Stato dell'arte

Framework for developing a municipal adaptation plan This article originally appeared in Tiempo Issue 87 April 2008 By Pierre Mukheibir and Gina Ziervogel Introduction In recent years, reducing vulnerability to climate change has become an urgent issue in low- and middle-income countries, and is at the forefront of any sustainable development policy agenda. Adaptation to climate change is a process whereby individuals and communities seek to respond to ‘actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects’. National Adaptation Plans of Action (NAPA) have been developed recently under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). This article presents an overarching framework developed for a municipal level approach to adapting sectors to climate impacts Towards a framework for adaptation to climate change at municipal level These principles should continually be reflected on to ensure adaptation activities are achieving their desired goals. Conclusion Note: Contact:

Algeria focuses on the carbon challenge - CNBC: Energy Opportunities Algeria may appear an unlikely leader in clean energy, but the Minister of Energy and Mines says he’s proud his country is an early contributor to the climate change solution. There’s been no real financial gain for Algeria to store the stripped CO2 from its natural gas since 2004, but Dr.Youcef Yousfi says it’s his country’s commitment to the environment that prompted this decision years ago. “These important projects were developed on a voluntary basis, as Algeria has no obligation to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and did not benefit from any funding mechanisms, like the Green Development Mechanism, GDM specified in the Kyoto Protocol.” In the drive to find an ideal combatant to greenhouse gas emissions, the concept of carbon capture and storage, CCS is now gaining popularity on a global scale. The climate change debate is looking for many answers and CCS it is argued, ticks a few challenging boxes. Chapman commends the work and experience in Algeria.

The climate has always changed. What do you conclude? Probably everyone has heard this argument, presented as objection against the findings of climate scientists on global warming: “The climate has always changed!” And it is true: climate has changed even before humans began to burn fossil fuels. So what can we conclude from that? A quick quiz Do you conclude… (1) that humans cannot change the climate? (2) that we do not know whether humans are to blame for global warming? (3) that global warming will not have any severe consequences? (4) that we cannot stop global warming? The answer Not one of these answers is correct. (1) The opposite conclusion is correct: if the climate had hardly changed during the course of the Earth’s history (despite variable incoming solar radiation and changing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere), then we would conclude that there are strong stabilizing feedbacks in the climate system. Paleoclimatologists determine the climate sensitivity from data from the Earth’s history. (2) Imagine there has been a forest fire.

15 Global Challenges The 15 Global Challenges updated annually continue to be the best introduction by far to the key issues of the early 21st century. -- Michael Marien, editor, Future Survey 15 Global Challenges facing humanity The 15 Global Challenges provide a framework to assess the global and local prospects for humanity. Their description, with a range of views and actions to addressed each, enriched with regional views and progress assessments are updated each year, since 1996. A short overview is published in the annual State of the Future,while continuous updates and details are available on the Global Futures Intelligence System website: The 15 Global Challenges are a result of continuous research, Delphi studies, interviews, and participantion of over 4,000 experts from around the world, since 1996 -- see a short history. The Global Challenges are transnational in nature and transinstitutional in solution. The 15 Global Challenges: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Canada and the Kyoto Protocol Map of Canada showing the increases in GHG emissions by province/territory in 2008, compared to the 1990 base year 50%+ increase 30%–50% increase 20%–30% increase 10%–20% increase 0%–10% increase 0%–10% decrease Each square represents 2 tonnes {{CO2}} eq. per capita Canada was active in the negotiations that led to the Kyoto Protocol in 1997,[1] and the Liberal government that signed the accord in 1997 also ratified it in parliament in 2002.[2] Canada's Kyoto target was a 6% total reduction by 2012 compared to 1990 levels (461 Mt) (GC 1994).[3][notes 1] However, in spite of some efforts, federal indecision led to increases in GHG emissions since then. Debates surrounding the implementation of Kyoto in Canada are informed by the nature of relationships between national, provincial, territorial and municipal jurisdictions. In 2009 Canada signed the Copenhagen Accord, which, unlike the Kyoto Accord, is a non-binding agreement. Canada and Kyoto: a Timeline[edit] Overview[edit] The Energy Sector[edit]

Verso il 2020 senza illusioni Riflessioni sul nostro futuro partendo dal fallimento della COP25. Di Luca Pardi Il fallimento della COP25 non è arrivato, almeno per me, come una sorpresa. Da anni, e in modo accelerato in questi ultimi mesi, si sente parlare di transizione energetica, verde, ecologica, sostenibile ecc. Tutte formule che finora si sono rivelate vuote. Per mettere in crisi la posizione negazionista basta evocare il tema dell’esaurimento delle risorse non rinnovabili: minerali ed energetiche. «La produzione globale di petrolio convenzionale ha superato il picco nel 2008 a 69,5 milioni di barili al giorno e da allora è diminuita di circa 2,5 milioni di barili al giorno.» Il picco produttivo globale della categoria di petrolio più conveniente, il convenzionale appunto, è avvenuto nel primo decennio del secolo (come previsto, peraltro, da Colin Campbell e Jean Laherrere) e questo segna il passaggio allo sfruttamento di categorie di petrolio più difficili e costose da estrarre. "Mi piace":

Biochar | Biochar Farms In physical terms, biochar is simply the charred remains is formed when plant material is heated in an oxygen free environment–a process scientists call “pyrolysis.” Unlike charcoal which is very similar, biochar is created specifically to improve soil structure and ehnance crop productivity. “Net energy,” or the total amount of energy yielded from the process, is positive meaning it generates more energy than it consumes. Because not all of the carbon is combusted (approximately 10-50 percent of the total carbon is retained as biochar), significant carbon can be returned to the soils and therefore the process is considered to be “carbon negative.” Unlike other biofuels and bioenergy platforms, biochar does not necessitate using valuable agricultural lands or deforesting already vulnerable ecosystems as many other bioenergy systems would required. On one hand biochar is fairly simple. Microscopic picture of biochar (Courtesy of Iowa State Biorenewable Center) Scientific Papers:

Status of Ratification Kyoto, 11 December 1997 Entry into force: 16 February 2005, in accordance with article 25 (1) in accordance with article 25 (3) which reads as follows: "For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Protocol or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 above for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.". Registration: 16 February 2005, No. 30822. Status: Signatories: 83. Parties: 192 Note: The Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“the Convention”), held at Kyoto (Japan) from 1 to 11 December 1997. "w" indicates withdrawal End Note: (3) With a territorial exclusion to the Faroe Islands (5) With the following declaration:

Will the Collapse of Civilization Begin With Global Corporatist Totalitarianism? I‘ve just finished reading Dmitry Orlov’s new book The Five Stages of Collapse. It made me realize that I have probably been making two fundamental errors in my thinking about how our civilization culture will collapse, and what we should do to become more resilient in the face of that collapse (taking steps like learning new personal and collective capacities, and re-learning how to create communities). My two errors were the failure to recognize: The Need to Stop Collapse at Stage 3: I have been thinking that there is only one type of collapse, one ‘end game’, though there are many different scenarios about how it will play out. But let me take a step back and start with a brief overview of The Five Stages of Collapse. If you look at the Signs of Collapse in the table above, it is not hard to conclude that the first three stages — Financial, Commercial, and Political Collapse — are already upon us, and we just haven’t recognized them yet. After us, the dragons.

Clean Development Mechanism | General Knowledge Today Out of the three mechanisms under the Kyoto Mechanisms, the Clean Development Mechanism is most popular. It is defined by the Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. Objectives: There are two broad objectives of the CDM as follows: To help the Non-Annex parties in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC, i.e. to prevent the climate change. Benefits The benefits of the CDM are shown in the following graphics: Process: The Process is shown in the following simple graphics: The above graphics presents the classical structure of the CDM which uses project-by-project process for registering and verifying projects. The countries which are less developed or least developed and the small island states where average project sizes and the scale of national markets tend to be smaller, the relative transaction costs are higher. To address this problem, the CDM Executive Board launched the Programme of Activities (PoA) modality. Programme of Activities (PoA)

Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto mechanisms Under the Protocol, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms. The Kyoto mechanisms are: The mechanisms help to stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way. Monitoring emission targets Under the Protocol, countries' actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept of the trades carried out. Registry systems track and record transactions by Parties under the mechanisms. Reporting is done by Parties by submitting annual emission inventories and national reports under the Protocol at regular intervals. A compliance system ensures that Parties are meeting their commitments and helps them to meet their commitments if they have problems doing so. The road ahead More information on targets

The Collapse of the Modern Western Empire. What Future for Humankind? These notes are not supposed to disparage nor to exalt an entity that has a history that goes back to at least a couple of millennia ago. Like all Empires, past and present, the Modern World Empire went through its parable of growth and glory and it is now starting its decline. There is not much that we can do about it, we have to accept that this is the way the universe works. On this subject, see also a previous post of mine "Why Europe Conquered the World " For everything that exists, there is a reason and that's true also for that gigantic thing that we call sometimes "The West" or perhaps "The American Empire," or maybe "Globalization." As someone might have said (and maybe someone did, but it might be an original concept of mine), "geography is the mother of Empires." Like all empires, though, the Roman one carried inside the seeds of its own destruction. In this way, the Europeans created a gentle and sophisticated civilization. But things never stand still.

Corinair CORINAIR - The New Family Of Software Tools Air Emission Data Exchange Module - project Within the framework of the Corinair - CORe INventory AIR emissions, the European Environment Agency (EEA) and its European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC-ACC) have developed a set of software tools to support European countries in compiling annual air emission inventories. These tools allow for a transparent and standardized, hence consistent and comparable data collecting and emissions reporting procedure in accordance with the requirements of international conventions and protocols and EU legislation. Background EEA and ETC-AE The EEA (European Environment Agency) was established in Copenhagen (Denmark) by the European Union to provide “timely, targeted, relevant and reliable information to policy makers and to the public” [1]. In 2001 ETC/AE distributed modified and improved versions of software tools upgraded under EEA TERESA project. Reporting of inventories How to find the tools?

Party Groupings Each Party to the Convention is represented at sessions of the Convention bodies by a national delegation consisting of one or more officials empowered to represent and negotiate on behalf of their government. Based on the tradition of the United Nations, Parties are organized into five regional groups, mainly for the purposes of electing the Bureaux, namely: African States, Asian States, Eastern European States, Latin American and the Caribbean States, and the Western European and Other States (the "Other States" include Australia, Canada, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland and the United States of America, but not Japan, which is in the Asian Group). The five regional groups, however, are not usually used to present the substantive interests of Parties and several other groupings are more important for climate negotiations. Developing countries generally work through the Group of 77 to establish common negotiating positions.