United Nations Climate Change conference The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conferences of the Parties) (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol" (CMP); also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 the meetings have also been used to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform activities until its conclusion in 2015. The first UN Climate Change Conference was held in 1995 in Berlin. 1995: COP 1, The Berlin Mandate
Carbon credit A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide. Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One carbon credit is equal to one metric tonne of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. The goal is to allow market mechanisms to drive industrial and commercial processes in the direction of low emissions or less carbon intensive approaches than those used when there is no cost to emitting carbon dioxide and other GHGs into the atmosphere. Definitions Types Background Emission allowances Kyoto's 'Flexible mechanisms' Emission markets
2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015. It was the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement, a global agreement on the reduction of climate change, the text of which represented a consensus of the representatives of the 196 attending parties. The agreement enters into force when joined by at least 55 countries which together represent at least 55 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. On 22 April 2016 (Earth Day), 174 countries signed the agreement in New York,  and began adopting it within their own legal systems (through ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession). Background Global carbon dioxide emissions by country in 2015. China (29.5%)
Carbon-Credit Gold: Who is going to get rich? « Stephen Leahy, I By Stephen Leahy Paying the poor to conserve forests through a market scheme is the new star among initiatives in climate talks. UXBRIDGE, Canada, Dec 15 (Tierramérica).- Climate experts meeting in Poznan, Poland, promised to create a new pot of carbon-credit gold for the rural poor as guardians of rural lands and forests. But there are many who warn that the gold will flow only to corporate interests. One of the most effective ways to combat climate change, caused by gases like carbon dioxide that trap heat in the atmosphere, is through biological sequestration of carbon in plants, trees and soils. If these activities become part of a multi-billion-dollar global carbon finance regime, under a new 2009 climate treaty, there could be extraordinary benefits for the rural poor and the environment, according to Olav Kjørven, the former director of the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP) Energy and Environment Group. For complete story see: Carbon Markets – What’s In It for the Poor?
Earth Summit The Earth Summit was a UN event The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, and Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012. It was held from 13 to 22 June. Overview 172 governments participated, with 116 sending their heads of state or government. Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attended, with 17,000 people at the parallel NGO "Global Forum" (also called Forum Global), who had Consultative Status. The issues addressed included: An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol. Results The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents: See also References
Is Latin America Really a Carbon Market Pioneer? By María Amparo Lasso* Latin America could help reduce carbon dioxide emissions by up to 55 million tons through the sale of carbon credits. But this strategy doesn't convince the critics, who ask if the region would foment clean and renewable energy sources or would merely sell cheap carbon credits to the highest bidder from the industrialized North. MEXICO CITY - Latin America is a big player in the world's carbon market: the region has already negotiated 210.6 million dollars of carbon emissions trading in the context of the Kyoto Protocol, which is to take effect in February 2005 and has rekindled the debate about how to fight global warming. The region's countries presented 46 projects under the treaty's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which could reduce emissions of around 55 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas, produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. European corporations like V&M seem to be the most enthusiastic.
Earth Summit 2002 The World Summit on Sustainable Development, WSSD or ONG Earth Summit 2002 took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002. It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business and non-governmental organizations, 10 years after the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. (It was therefore also informally nicknamed "Rio+10".) Declarations The Johannesburg Declaration was the main outcome of the Summit; however, there were several other international agreements.  It laid out the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation as an action plan.  Agreements Johannesburg, 27 August: agreement was made to restore the world's depleted fisheries for 2015. Instead of new agreements between governments, the Earth Summit was organized mostly around almost 300 "partnership initiatives" known as Type II, as opposed to Type I Partnerships which are the more classic outcome of international treaties.
Sustainability | HSBC Holdings plc Putting sustainability into practice We recognise that we have a responsibility to assess the environmental and social impacts of our business – and to manage these impacts. Here's how we do it: We aim to reduce annual employee carbon emissions by one tonne, from 3.5 to 2.5 tonnes by 2020. We're helping our customers by developing products and services that will support the transition to a low carbon economy. By investing in educational partnerships, we’re able to commit time, money and resources to promote economic growth by helping young people reach their potential. Our five-year programme with Earthwatch, WaterAid and WWF is focused on helping the 1.1 billion people who don’t have access to safe drinking water. We anticipate and deal with potential social or environmental risks that may arise through our lending and investment. Here are some examples of how we are working with our stakeholders to build a more sustainable future.
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm, Sweden from June 5–16 in 1972. When the United Nations General Assembly decided to convene the 1972 Stockholm Conference, taking up the offer of the Government of Sweden to host it, UN Secretary-General U Thant invited Maurice Strong to lead it as Secretary-General of the Conference, as the Canadian diplomat (under Pierre Trudeau) had initiated and already worked for over two years on the project. The United Nations Environment Programme, or UNEP, was created as a result of this conference. History Sweden first suggested to the United Nations Economic and Social Council ECOSOC in 1968 the idea of having a UN conference to focus on human interactions with the environment. Issues at the Conference At the conference itself, divisions between developed and developing countries began to emerge. Stockholm Declaration Principles of the Stockholm Declaration: See also References
'World's biggest' forest protection deal for Canada 18 May 2010Last updated at 17:33 By Richard Black Environment correspondent, BBC News The agreement will protect much of Canada's wide open rangelands Timber companies and environment groups have unveiled an agreement aimed at protecting two-thirds of Canada's vast forests from unsustainable logging. Over 72 million hectares are included in what will become the world's largest commercial forest conservation deal. Logging will be totally banned on some of the land, in the hope of sustaining endangered caribou populations. Timber companies hope the deal will bring commercial gains, as timber buyers seek higher ethical standards. The total protected area is about twice the size of Germany, and equals the area of forest lost globally between 1990 and 2005. "The importance of this agreement cannot be overstated," said Avrim Lazar, president and CEO of the Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC). Continue reading the main story “Start Quote End QuoteSteve KallickPew Environment Group
Greenhouse gas emissions accounting Maybe later |Close Thank you! We will send you a reminder email. Dear readers in Canada, time is running out in 2016 to help Wikipedia. To protect our independence, we'll never run ads. We're sustained by donations averaging about $15. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting is a method of calculating the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted by a region in a given time-scale. There are two conflicting ways of measuring GHG emissions: production-based (sometimes referred to as territorial-based) or consumption-based. Which technique is applied by policymakers is fundamental as each can generate a very different NEI. Different NEIs would result in a country’s choosing different optimal mitigation activities, the wrong choice based on wrong information being potentially damaging. The application of production-based emissions accounting is currently favoured in policy terms, although much of the literature favours consumption-based accounting. Rationale Advantages
‘Tainted’ Credits Pull Down UN Carbon Price: Energy Markets - Bu BBC intro to COP21 (with video) Media playback is unsupported on your device BBC News looks at what we know and don't know about the Earth's changing climate. What is climate change? The planet's climate has constantly been changing over geological time. The global average temperature today is about 15C, though geological evidence suggests it has been much higher and lower in the past. However, the current period of warming is occurring more rapidly than many past events. What is the "greenhouse effect"? The greenhouse effect refers to the way the Earth's atmosphere traps some of the energy from the Sun. The energy that radiates back down to the planet heats both the lower atmosphere and the surface. Scientists believe we are adding to the natural greenhouse effect with gases released from industry and agriculture (known as emissions), trapping more energy and increasing the temperature. Most man-made emissions of CO2 are through the burning of fossil fuels, as well as through cutting down carbon-absorbing forests.
The Climate Change Communication Forum Communicating climate change presents us with a fundamental challenge. Climate change threatens all countries on Earth, regardless of their degree of development. However, telling the story of climate change, its causes and effects, and the ways in which we can contribute in the fight against it, remains a difficult task for any party involved, including the scientific community, governments, the media or nongovernmental organizations. There is growing interest in deepening climate awareness around the world. The main purpose of this initiative is to share ideas and identify best practices in addressing common challenges, and at the same time contribute to consensus building. Public opinion on climate change will be the starting point of the Forum. The Forum will take place in the Grand Velas Riviera Maya (Carretera Cancun-Tulum, km 62, Playa del Carmen) on December 3, 2010, form 9 am to 5:30 pm.