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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. The objective of the treaty is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system".[2] The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. The UNFCCC was opened for signature on 9 May 1992, after an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee produced the text of the Framework Convention as a report following its meeting in New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. Treaty[edit] Later negotiations[edit] Kyoto Protocol[edit] Bali Action Plan[edit] Copenhagen and Cancún[edit] Parties[edit] Related:  EARTH SUMMITS: STOCKHOLM 1972 -> RIO 1992 -> PARIS 2015

United Nations Climate Change conference The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conferences of the Parties) (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.[1] From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol" (CMP);[2] also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 the meetings have also been used to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform activities until its conclusion in 2015. The first UN Climate Change Conference was held in 1995 in Berlin. 1995: COP 1, The Berlin Mandate[edit]

Framework for developing a municipal adaptation plan This article originally appeared in Tiempo Issue 87 April 2008 By Pierre Mukheibir and Gina Ziervogel Introduction In recent years, reducing vulnerability to climate change has become an urgent issue in low- and middle-income countries, and is at the forefront of any sustainable development policy agenda. Adaptation to climate change is a process whereby individuals and communities seek to respond to ‘actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects’. National Adaptation Plans of Action (NAPA) have been developed recently under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). This article presents an overarching framework developed for a municipal level approach to adapting sectors to climate impacts Towards a framework for adaptation to climate change at municipal level These principles should continually be reflected on to ensure adaptation activities are achieving their desired goals. Conclusion Note: Contact: gina@csag.uct.ac.za

Carbon credit A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide.[1][2][3] Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One carbon credit is equal to one metric tonne of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. The goal is to allow market mechanisms to drive industrial and commercial processes in the direction of low emissions or less carbon intensive approaches than those used when there is no cost to emitting carbon dioxide and other GHGs into the atmosphere. Definitions[edit] Types[edit] Background[edit] Emission allowances[edit] Kyoto's 'Flexible mechanisms'[edit] Emission markets[edit]

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations,[1][2] set up at the request of member governments.[3] It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53. Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP.[4] The IPCC is chaired by Rajendra K. Pachauri. The IPCC does not carry out its own original research, nor does it do the work of monitoring climate or related phenomena itself. Thousands of scientists and other experts contribute (on a voluntary basis, without payment from the IPCC)[8] to writing and reviewing reports, which are then reviewed by governments. Aims[edit] The aims of the IPCC are to assess scientific information relevant to:[6] Organization[edit] There are several major groups:

Algeria focuses on the carbon challenge - CNBC: Energy Opportunities Algeria may appear an unlikely leader in clean energy, but the Minister of Energy and Mines says he’s proud his country is an early contributor to the climate change solution. There’s been no real financial gain for Algeria to store the stripped CO2 from its natural gas since 2004, but Dr.Youcef Yousfi says it’s his country’s commitment to the environment that prompted this decision years ago. “These important projects were developed on a voluntary basis, as Algeria has no obligation to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and did not benefit from any funding mechanisms, like the Green Development Mechanism, GDM specified in the Kyoto Protocol.” In the drive to find an ideal combatant to greenhouse gas emissions, the concept of carbon capture and storage, CCS is now gaining popularity on a global scale. The climate change debate is looking for many answers and CCS it is argued, ticks a few challenging boxes. Chapman commends the work and experience in Algeria.

2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 will be held in Paris,[1] from November 30 to December 11.[2] It will be the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.[3] The conference objective is to achieve a legally binding and universal agreement on climate, from all the nations of the world. Leadership of the negotiations is yet to be determined. Background[edit] Shows the top 40 CO2 emitting countries and related in the world in 1990 and 2013, including per capita figures. The data is taken from the EU Edgar database. According to the organizing committee, the objective of the 2015 conference is to achieve, for the first time in over 20 years of UN negotiations, a binding and universal agreement on climate, from all the nations of the world.[2] Location and participation[edit] Negotiations[edit]

15 Global Challenges The 15 Global Challenges updated annually continue to be the best introduction by far to the key issues of the early 21st century. -- Michael Marien, editor, Future Survey 15 Global Challenges facing humanity The 15 Global Challenges provide a framework to assess the global and local prospects for humanity. Their description, with a range of views and actions to addressed each, enriched with regional views and progress assessments are updated each year, since 1996. A short overview is published in the annual State of the Future,while continuous updates and details are available on the Global Futures Intelligence System website: The 15 Global Challenges are a result of continuous research, Delphi studies, interviews, and participantion of over 4,000 experts from around the world, since 1996 -- see a short history. The Global Challenges are transnational in nature and transinstitutional in solution. The 15 Global Challenges: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Carbon-Credit Gold: Who is going to get rich? « Stephen Leahy, I By Stephen Leahy Paying the poor to conserve forests through a market scheme is the new star among initiatives in climate talks. UXBRIDGE, Canada, Dec 15 (Tierramérica).- Climate experts meeting in Poznan, Poland, promised to create a new pot of carbon-credit gold for the rural poor as guardians of rural lands and forests. But there are many who warn that the gold will flow only to corporate interests. One of the most effective ways to combat climate change, caused by gases like carbon dioxide that trap heat in the atmosphere, is through biological sequestration of carbon in plants, trees and soils. If these activities become part of a multi-billion-dollar global carbon finance regime, under a new 2009 climate treaty, there could be extraordinary benefits for the rural poor and the environment, according to Olav Kjørven, the former director of the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP) Energy and Environment Group. For complete story see: Carbon Markets – What’s In It for the Poor?

Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Parties with first period (2008–12) greenhouse gas emissions limitations targets, and the percentage change in their carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion between 1990 and 2009. For more detailed country/region information, see Kyoto Protocol and government action. Overview map of states committed to greenhouse gas (GHG) limitations in the first Kyoto Protocol period (2008–12):[8] Dark grey = Annex I Parties who have agreed to reduce their GHG emissions below their individual base year levels (see definition in this article) Grey = Annex I Parties who have agreed to cap their GHG emissions at their base year levels Pale grey = Non-Annex I Parties who are not obligated by caps or Annex I Parties with an emissions cap that allows their emissions to expand above their base year levels or countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol The European Union as a whole has in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol committed itself to an 8% reduction. Background[edit] Asia[edit]

Canada and the Kyoto Protocol Map of Canada showing the increases in GHG emissions by province/territory in 2008, compared to the 1990 base year 50%+ increase 30%–50% increase 20%–30% increase 10%–20% increase 0%–10% increase 0%–10% decrease Each square represents 2 tonnes {{CO2}} eq. per capita Canada was active in the negotiations that led to the Kyoto Protocol in 1997,[1] and the Liberal government that signed the accord in 1997 also ratified it in parliament in 2002.[2] Canada's Kyoto target was a 6% total reduction by 2012 compared to 1990 levels (461 Mt) (GC 1994).[3][notes 1] However, in spite of some efforts, federal indecision led to increases in GHG emissions since then. Debates surrounding the implementation of Kyoto in Canada are informed by the nature of relationships between national, provincial, territorial and municipal jurisdictions. In 2009 Canada signed the Copenhagen Accord, which, unlike the Kyoto Accord, is a non-binding agreement. Canada and Kyoto: a Timeline[edit] Overview[edit] The Energy Sector[edit]

Earth Summit The Earth Summit was a UN event The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, and Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012. It was held from 13 to 22 June. Overview[edit] 172 governments participated, with 116 sending their heads of state or government.[1] Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attended, with 17,000 people at the parallel NGO "Global Forum" (also called Forum Global), who had Consultative Status. The issues addressed included: An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol. Results[edit] The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents: See also[edit] References[edit]

Biochar | Biochar Farms In physical terms, biochar is simply the charred remains is formed when plant material is heated in an oxygen free environment–a process scientists call “pyrolysis.” Unlike charcoal which is very similar, biochar is created specifically to improve soil structure and ehnance crop productivity. “Net energy,” or the total amount of energy yielded from the process, is positive meaning it generates more energy than it consumes. Because not all of the carbon is combusted (approximately 10-50 percent of the total carbon is retained as biochar), significant carbon can be returned to the soils and therefore the process is considered to be “carbon negative.” Unlike other biofuels and bioenergy platforms, biochar does not necessitate using valuable agricultural lands or deforesting already vulnerable ecosystems as many other bioenergy systems would required. On one hand biochar is fairly simple. Microscopic picture of biochar (Courtesy of Iowa State Biorenewable Center) Scientific Papers:

Is Latin America Really a Carbon Market Pioneer? By María Amparo Lasso* Latin America could help reduce carbon dioxide emissions by up to 55 million tons through the sale of carbon credits. But this strategy doesn't convince the critics, who ask if the region would foment clean and renewable energy sources or would merely sell cheap carbon credits to the highest bidder from the industrialized North. MEXICO CITY - Latin America is a big player in the world's carbon market: the region has already negotiated 210.6 million dollars of carbon emissions trading in the context of the Kyoto Protocol, which is to take effect in February 2005 and has rekindled the debate about how to fight global warming. The region's countries presented 46 projects under the treaty's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which could reduce emissions of around 55 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas, produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. European corporations like V&M seem to be the most enthusiastic.

Waste heat Instead of being “wasted” by release into the ambient environment, sometimes waste heat (or cold) can be utilized by another process, or a portion of heat that would otherwise be wasted can be reused in the same process if make-up heat is added to the system (as with heat recovery ventilation in a building). Thermal energy storage, which includes technologies both for short- and long-term retention of heat or cold, can create or improve the utility of waste heat (or cold). One example is waste heat from air conditioning machinery stored in a buffer tank to aid in night time heating. Another is seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) at a foundry in Sweden. On a biological scale, all organisms reject waste heat as part of their metabolic processes, and will die if the ambient temperature is too high to allow this. Anthropogenic waste heat is thought by some to contribute to the urban heat island effect. Conversion of energy[edit] Sources[edit] Power generation[edit] Industrial processes[edit]

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