United Nations Climate Change conference The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conferences of the Parties) (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol" (CMP); also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 the meetings have also been used to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform activities until its conclusion in 2015. The first UN Climate Change Conference was held in 1995 in Berlin. 1995: COP 1, The Berlin Mandate
Framework for developing a municipal adaptation plan This article originally appeared in Tiempo Issue 87 April 2008 By Pierre Mukheibir and Gina Ziervogel Introduction In recent years, reducing vulnerability to climate change has become an urgent issue in low- and middle-income countries, and is at the forefront of any sustainable development policy agenda. Adaptation to climate change is a process whereby individuals and communities seek to respond to ‘actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects’. National Adaptation Plans of Action (NAPA) have been developed recently under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). This article presents an overarching framework developed for a municipal level approach to adapting sectors to climate impacts Towards a framework for adaptation to climate change at municipal level These principles should continually be reflected on to ensure adaptation activities are achieving their desired goals. Conclusion Note: Contact: email@example.com
2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 will be held in Paris, from November 30 to December 11. It will be the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The conference objective is to achieve a legally binding and universal agreement on climate, from all the nations of the world. Leadership of the negotiations is yet to be determined. Background Shows the top 40 CO2 emitting countries and related in the world in 1990 and 2013, including per capita figures. The data is taken from the EU Edgar database. According to the organizing committee, the objective of the 2015 conference is to achieve, for the first time in over 20 years of UN negotiations, a binding and universal agreement on climate, from all the nations of the world. Location and participation Negotiations
15 Global Challenges The 15 Global Challenges updated annually continue to be the best introduction by far to the key issues of the early 21st century. -- Michael Marien, editor, Future Survey 15 Global Challenges facing humanity The 15 Global Challenges provide a framework to assess the global and local prospects for humanity. Their description, with a range of views and actions to addressed each, enriched with regional views and progress assessments are updated each year, since 1996. A short overview is published in the annual State of the Future,while continuous updates and details are available on the Global Futures Intelligence System website: The 15 Global Challenges are a result of continuous research, Delphi studies, interviews, and participantion of over 4,000 experts from around the world, since 1996 -- see a short history. The Global Challenges are transnational in nature and transinstitutional in solution. The 15 Global Challenges: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
Earth Summit The Earth Summit was a UN event The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, and Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012. It was held from 13 to 22 June. Overview 172 governments participated, with 116 sending their heads of state or government. Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attended, with 17,000 people at the parallel NGO "Global Forum" (also called Forum Global), who had Consultative Status. The issues addressed included: An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol. Results The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents: See also References
Biochar | Biochar Farms In physical terms, biochar is simply the charred remains is formed when plant material is heated in an oxygen free environment–a process scientists call “pyrolysis.” Unlike charcoal which is very similar, biochar is created specifically to improve soil structure and ehnance crop productivity. “Net energy,” or the total amount of energy yielded from the process, is positive meaning it generates more energy than it consumes. Because not all of the carbon is combusted (approximately 10-50 percent of the total carbon is retained as biochar), significant carbon can be returned to the soils and therefore the process is considered to be “carbon negative.” Unlike other biofuels and bioenergy platforms, biochar does not necessitate using valuable agricultural lands or deforesting already vulnerable ecosystems as many other bioenergy systems would required. On one hand biochar is fairly simple. Microscopic picture of biochar (Courtesy of Iowa State Biorenewable Center) Scientific Papers:
Earth Summit 2002 The World Summit on Sustainable Development, WSSD or ONG Earth Summit 2002 took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002. It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business and non-governmental organizations, 10 years after the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. (It was therefore also informally nicknamed "Rio+10".) Declarations The Johannesburg Declaration was the main outcome of the Summit; however, there were several other international agreements.  It laid out the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation as an action plan.  Agreements Johannesburg, 27 August: agreement was made to restore the world's depleted fisheries for 2015. Instead of new agreements between governments, the Earth Summit was organized mostly around almost 300 "partnership initiatives" known as Type II, as opposed to Type I Partnerships which are the more classic outcome of international treaties.
Clean Development Mechanism | General Knowledge Today Out of the three mechanisms under the Kyoto Mechanisms, the Clean Development Mechanism is most popular. It is defined by the Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. Objectives: There are two broad objectives of the CDM as follows: To help the Non-Annex parties in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC, i.e. to prevent the climate change. Benefits The benefits of the CDM are shown in the following graphics: Process: The Process is shown in the following simple graphics: The above graphics presents the classical structure of the CDM which uses project-by-project process for registering and verifying projects. The countries which are less developed or least developed and the small island states where average project sizes and the scale of national markets tend to be smaller, the relative transaction costs are higher. To address this problem, the CDM Executive Board launched the Programme of Activities (PoA) modality. Programme of Activities (PoA)
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm, Sweden from June 5 to June 16 in 1972. When the UN General Assembly decided to convene the 1972 Stockholm Conference, at the initiative of the Government of Sweden to host it, UN Secretary-General U Thant invited Maurice Strong to lead it as Secretary-General of the Conference, as the Canadian diplomat (under Pierre Trudeau) had initiated and already worked for over two years on the project. History Sweden first suggested to ECOSOC in 1968 the idea of having a UN conference to focus on human interactions with the environment. ECOSOC passed resolution 1346 supporting the idea. Stockholm Declaration The meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development; an Action Plan with 109 recommendations, and a Resolution. Principles of the Stockholm Declaration: 1. See also References Further reading External links
Corinair CORINAIR - The New Family Of Software Tools Air Emission Data Exchange Module - project Within the framework of the Corinair - CORe INventory AIR emissions, the European Environment Agency (EEA) and its European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC-ACC) have developed a set of software tools to support European countries in compiling annual air emission inventories. These tools allow for a transparent and standardized, hence consistent and comparable data collecting and emissions reporting procedure in accordance with the requirements of international conventions and protocols and EU legislation. Background EEA and ETC-AE The EEA (European Environment Agency) was established in Copenhagen (Denmark) by the European Union to provide “timely, targeted, relevant and reliable information to policy makers and to the public” . In 2001 ETC/AE distributed modified and improved versions of software tools upgraded under EEA TERESA project. Reporting of inventories How to find the tools?
Greenhouse gas emissions accounting Maybe later |Close Thank you! We will send you a reminder email. Dear readers in Canada, time is running out in 2016 to help Wikipedia. To protect our independence, we'll never run ads. We're sustained by donations averaging about $15. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting is a method of calculating the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted by a region in a given time-scale. There are two conflicting ways of measuring GHG emissions: production-based (sometimes referred to as territorial-based) or consumption-based. Which technique is applied by policymakers is fundamental as each can generate a very different NEI. Different NEIs would result in a country’s choosing different optimal mitigation activities, the wrong choice based on wrong information being potentially damaging. The application of production-based emissions accounting is currently favoured in policy terms, although much of the literature favours consumption-based accounting. Rationale Advantages
Taiwan into United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) Actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are significantly less costly than the potentially catastrophic consequences of inaction. Furthermore, the transition to a low-carbon economy will provide enormous opportunities for technological innovation, economic growth, and job creation, while improving energy security. In order to promote sustainable development and to maintain abundant natural ecosystems in Taiwan, the government has already started to address climate change and to fulfill its duty as a member of the global village. The following policies and measures have been implemented to reduce GHG emissions: Taiwan’s GHG Reduction Act On 4 February 2008, the Executive Yuan (the executive branch of the ROC Government) passed the draft GHG Reduction Act (“Bill”), which was then submitted to the Legislative Yuan for deliberation. Before the Bill takes effect, voluntary agreements with industries and incentives for early action are being promoted. GHG Emission Permits: Policy Principles
BBC intro to COP21 (with video) Media playback is unsupported on your device BBC News looks at what we know and don't know about the Earth's changing climate. What is climate change? The planet's climate has constantly been changing over geological time. The global average temperature today is about 15C, though geological evidence suggests it has been much higher and lower in the past. However, the current period of warming is occurring more rapidly than many past events. What is the "greenhouse effect"? The greenhouse effect refers to the way the Earth's atmosphere traps some of the energy from the Sun. The energy that radiates back down to the planet heats both the lower atmosphere and the surface. Scientists believe we are adding to the natural greenhouse effect with gases released from industry and agriculture (known as emissions), trapping more energy and increasing the temperature. Most man-made emissions of CO2 are through the burning of fossil fuels, as well as through cutting down carbon-absorbing forests.
A framework to diagnose barriers to climate change adaptation In the first decade of the 21st century, adaptation to climate change has risen sharply as a topic of scientific inquiry, in local to international policy and planning, in the media, and in public awareness ( 1 – 3 ). Adaptation researchers have generally assumed lower vulnerability and greater adaptive capacity in developed countries than in developing countries and thus have focused more research in the latter ( 1 , 4 ). Yet climatic events in Europe, the United States, and Australia in recent years have also led to critical questioning of richer nations’ ability to adapt to climate change ( 3 , 5 , 6 ). The examination of developed nations’ adaptive capacity, and the persistent “adaptation deficit” in developing nations ( 7 ), has led to focused research on barriers and limits to adaptation. Defining Adaptation Adaptation has a long and multidisciplinary history of investigation. Fig. 1. Defining Barriers to Adaptation Results Three key components underlie the diagnostic framework.