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Empathy is the capacity to understand what another person is experiencing from within the other person's frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's shoes.[1] Etymology[edit] The English word is derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐμπάθεια (empatheia), "physical affection, passion, partiality" which comes from ἐν (en), "in, at" and πάθος (pathos), "passion" or "suffering".[2] The term was adapted by Hermann Lotze and Robert Vischer to create the German word Einfühlung ("feeling into"), which was translated by Edward B. Titchener into the English term empathy.[3][4] Alexithymia (the word comes from the Ancient Greek words λέξις (lexis, "diction", "word") and θυμός (thumos, "soul, as the seat of emotion, feeling, and thought") modified by an alpha-privative, literally meaning "without words for emotions"), is a term to describe a state of deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions in oneself.[5] Definition[edit] Applications[edit] Types[edit] Related:  gemoedstoestand

Awe This Atlanta lightning strike might have inspired awe. One dictionary definition is "an overwhelming feeling of reverence, admiration, fear, etc., produced by that which is grand, sublime, extremely powerful, or the like: in awe of God; in awe of great political figures. In general, awe is directed at objects considered to be more powerful than the subject, such as the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Grand Canyon, or the vastness of the cosmos. Definitions[edit] Etymology[edit] The term awe stems from the Old English word ege, meaning “terror, dread, awe,” which may have arisen from the Greek word áchos, meaning “pain.”[7] The word awesome originated from the word awe in the late 16th century, to mean “filled with awe.”[8] The word awful also originated from the word awe, to replace the word Old English word egeful (“dreadful”).[9] Theories[edit] Evolutionary theories[edit] Awe reinforces social hierarchies Keltner and Haidt[1] proposed an evolutionary explanation for awe. Sundararajan's awe

Cosmicism We ask you, humbly, to help. Hi reader in Canada, it seems you use Wikipedia a lot; that's great! It's a little awkward to ask, but this Tuesday we need your help. If you have already donated, we sincerely thank you. We’re not salespeople, but we depend on donations averaging $16.55 and fewer than 1% of readers give. Maybe later Thank you! Close Cosmicism is the literary philosophy developed and used by the American writer H. Principles[edit] The philosophy of cosmicism states that there is no recognizable divine presence, such as a god, in the universe, and that humans are particularly insignificant in the larger scheme of intergalactic existence, and perhaps are just a small species projecting their own mental idolatries onto the vast cosmos. The most prominent theme in cosmicism is the insignificance of humanity. Cosmic indifferentism[edit] Though personally irreligious, Lovecraft used various "gods" in his stories, particularly the Cthulhu-related tales, to expound cosmicism. Notes[edit]

Nihilism Nihilism is also a characteristic that has been ascribed to time periods: for example, Jean Baudrillard and others have called postmodernity a nihilistic epoch,[4] and some Christian theologians and figures of religious authority have asserted that postmodernity[5] and many aspects of modernity[3] represent a rejection of theism, and that such rejection of their theistic doctrine entails nihilism. Forms of nihilism[edit] Nihilism has many definitions, and thus can describe philosophical positions that are arguably independent. [edit] Metaphysical nihilism is the philosophical theory that there might be no objects at all—that is, that there is a possible world where there are no objects at all—or at least that there might be no concrete objects at all—so that even if every possible world contains some objects, there is at least one that contains only abstract objects. Epistemological nihilism[edit] Mereological nihilism[edit] This interpretation of existence must be based on resolution.

Absurdism Absurdism is very closely related to existentialism and nihilism and has its origins in the 19th century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, who chose to confront the crisis humans faced with the Absurd by developing existentialist philosophy.[3] Absurdism as a belief system was born of the European existentialist movement that ensued, specifically when the French Algerian philosopher and writer Albert Camus rejected certain aspects from that philosophical line of thought[4] and published his essay The Myth of Sisyphus. The aftermath of World War II provided the social environment that stimulated absurdist views and allowed for their popular development, especially in the devastated country of France. Overview[edit] "... in spite of or in defiance of the whole of existence he wills to be himself with it, to take it along, almost defying his torment. Relationship with existentialism and nihilism[edit] Related works by Søren Kierkegaard[edit] What is the Absurd? What, then, is the absurd?

Curiosity Curious children gather around photographer Toni Frissell, looking at her camera Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species.[1][2] Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.[3] The term "curiosity" can also be used to denote the behavior or emotion of being curious, in regards to the desire to gain knowledge or information. Curiosity as a behavior and emotion is attributed over millennium as the driving force behind not only human development, but developments in science, language, and industry.[4] Causes[edit] Children peer over shoulders to see what their friends are reading. Curiosity can be seen as an innate quality of many different species. Theories[edit] Curiosity-drive theory[edit]

Misanthropy General dislike of humanity Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature. A misanthrope or misanthropist is someone who holds such views or feelings. The word's origin is from the Greek words μῖσος (mīsos, "hatred") and ἄνθρωπος (ānthropos, "man, human"). The condition is often confused with asociality. Western culture[edit] Arts[edit] Gustave Flaubert once declared that he would "die of suppressed rage at the folly of [his] fellow men Molière's play The Misanthrope is one of the more famous French plays on this topic. Michelangelo has been called a misanthrope.[3] Don Van Vliet (commonly known as Captain Beefheart) has been described as a misanthrope, with close friend Kristine McKenna stating that he "thought human beings were the worst species that was ever dreamed up".[4] Morrissey, a songwriter, has been dubbed "pop's most famous misanthrope".[5] Philosophy[edit] Middle Eastern thought[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Loneliness Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation or lack of companionship. Loneliness typically includes anxious feelings about a lack of connection or communication with other beings, both in the present and extending into the future. As such, loneliness can be felt even when surrounded by other people. The causes of loneliness are varied and include social, mental, emotional or even physical factors. Research has shown that loneliness is widely prevalent throughout society among people in marriages, relationships, families, veterans and successful careers.[1] It has been a long explored theme in the literature of human beings since classical antiquity. Loneliness has also been described as social pain — a psychological mechanism meant to alert an individual of isolation and motivate him/her to seek social connections.[2] Common causes[edit] Many people experience loneliness for the first time when they are left alone as infants. Typology[edit] Effects[edit]

Naïviteit Naïviteit (bijbehorend adjectief naïef, van het Franse naïf, dat kinderlijk, natuurlijk, eenvoudig, ongevaarlijk betekent) is een geesteshouding die gekenmerkt wordt door onbevangenheid, eenvoud, ongekunsteldheid en openhartigheid. 'Naïf' is gerelateerd aan het Franse 'naître' - geboren worden'. Het begrip wordt gebruikt om zowel de onbevangen waarnemingen aan te duiden als de gedragingen van een persoon die zich weinig bewust is van zijn eigen handelingen en het effect van zijn mededelingen, die argeloos en daardoor gemakkelijk te verleiden is. De term naïviteit wordt ook wel gebruikt voor een handeling die voortkomt uit de naïeve geesteshouding, zoals tot uitdrukking komt in de zin: "Ik stel zijn naïviteiten niet op prijs". De kenmerken van naïviteit (onschuldige blik, eenvoud van uitdrukking, onwetendheid, onnozelheid) worden niet zelden doelbewust geïmiteerd om naïviteit voor te wenden. In de beeldende kunst komt naïef voor in het begrip naïeve kunst.

Sadomasochisme Sadomasochisme (een combinatie van sadisme: plezier in het aandoen van pijn, en masochisme: plezier in het ondergaan en onderdrukken van pijn) is een vorm van seksuele beleving waarin één of meerdere van de partner(s) de ander pijn laat ondergaan. De term wordt volgens het Groene Boekje afgekort als sm, maar wordt ook vaak afgekort als SM, S&M, of S/M of het wordt geduid onder de bredere verzamelnaam BDSM. Bij sadomasochisme komt ook wel algolagnie voor, afgeleid van Griekse algos (pijn) en lagneia (lust). Psychologie[bewerken] Ontstaan van het begrip[bewerken] Nadat Sigmund Freud (zie hierna) in zijn Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie (1905) sadisme en masochisme had voorgesteld als ziekten die het gevolg zijn van een gestoorde ontwikkeling van de kinderziel, was het uiteindelijk de Weense psychoanalist Isidor Sadger die in 1913 in zijn artikel "Über den sado-masochistischen Komplex" voor de eerste maal daadwerkelijk het samengestelde begrip Sado-Masochismus gebruikte. Freud[bewerken]

Paracosm A paracosm is a detailed imaginary world created inside one's mind. This fantasy world may involve humans, animals, and things that exist in reality; or it may also contain entities that are entirely imaginary, alien, and otherworldly. Commonly having its own geography, history, and languages, the experience of such a paracosm is often developed during childhood and continues over a long period of time: months or even years. Origin and usage[edit] The concept was first described by a researcher for the BBC, Robert Silvey, with later research by British psychiatrist Stephen A. Psychiatrists Delmont Morrison and Shirley Morrison mention paracosms and "paracosmic fantasy" in their book Memories of Loss and Dreams of Perfection, in the context of people who have suffered the death of a loved one or some other tragedy in childhood. Examples[edit] Examples of paracosms include: See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ The Paracosm: a special form of fantasy, in Morrison, D.C. External links[edit]

Escapisme Escapisme in dagelijks leven[bewerken] Positief escapisme[bewerken] Escapisme wordt vaak gezien als een extreem verschijnsel en daarom negatief beoordeeld. Dit suggereert dat lijders aan escapisme ongelukkig zijn en niet kunnen of willen deel uitmaken van hun omgeving. Maar sommige auteurs vechten het idee aan dat escapisme negatief is. Why should a man be scorned if, finding himself in prison, he tries to get out and go home? (vertaling: "Waarom zouden we een gevangene minachten, omdat hij probeert uit te breken en naar huis wil? Vandaar dat zijn vriend C.S. Negatief escapisme[bewerken] Fictie[bewerken] Stimulans voor verandering[bewerken] De Duitse sociale filosoof Ernst Bloch [3] schreef dat utopieën en aansprekende fantasieën, hoe primitief ze ook mogen zijn, toch een stimulans voor radicale sociale verandering kunnen zijn. Zie ook[bewerken] Literatuur[bewerken] Katz, E. en Foulkes, D.: On the Use of Mass Media as „Escape“: Clarification of a Concept, 1962