Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right (informational social influence), and our need to be liked (normative social influence). Informational influence (or social proof) is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality. Informational influence comes into play when people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically ambiguous or because there is social disagreement. Normative influence is an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. Types Social Influence is a broad term that relates to many different phenomena. Kelman's varieties 1) Compliance 2) Identification Identification is the changing of attitudes or behaviors due to the influence of someone that is liked. 3) Internalization Conformity Conversion includes the private acceptance that is absent in compliance. Status
Related: Crowd Manipulation
PropagandaPropaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position. While the term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples, propaganda in its original sense was neutral and could refer to uses that were generally positive, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to law enforcement. Etymology From the 1790s, the term began being used also for propaganda in secular activities. The term began taking a pejorative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere. Types Defining propaganda has always been a problem. According to historian Zbyněk Zeman, propaganda is defined as either white, grey or black. US Office for War Information poster implying that working less helped the Axis powers.
ConformityConformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, unsaid rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others. This tendency to conform occurs in small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure. Conformity can occur in the presence of others, or when an individual is alone. For example, people tend to follow social norms when eating or watching television, even when alone. People often conform from a desire for security within a group—typically a group of a similar age, culture, religion, or educational status. Although peer pressure may manifest negatively, conformity can have good or bad effects depending on the situation. As conformity is a group phenomenon, factors such as group size, unanimity, cohesion, status, prior commitment, and public opinion help determine the level of conformity an individual displays. Age
Global Issues : social, political, economic and environmental issues that affect us all5 Strategies to Read People’s Emotional EnergyEmotions are a stunning expression of our energy, the “vibe” we give off. We register these with intuition. Some people feel good to be around; they improve your mood and vitality. Emotional energy is contagious. When reading emotions, realize that what others say or how they appear frequently don‘t match their energy. Here, the surrender to focus on is saying “yes” to the messages your body sends. Strategies to read emotional energy Sense people’s presence - This is the overall energy we emit, not necessarily congruent with words or behaviour. As you read people notice: does their overall energy feel warm? Watch people’s eyes – We can make love or hate with our eyes. Take time to observe people‘s eyes. Notice the feel of a handshake, hug and touch – We share emotional energy through physical contact much like an electrical current. Listen for people’s tone of voice and laugh – The tone and volume of our voice can tell much about our emotions. Like this article? About the Author:
Social psychologySocial psychologists therefore deal with the factors that lead us to behave in a given way in the presence of others, and look at the conditions under which certain behavior/actions and feelings occur. Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed and how such psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with others. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists. As a broad generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena (see group dynamics).[page needed] History Intrapersonal phenomena Attitudes Persuasion The topic of persuasion has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Social cognition Self-concept
Gatekeeping (communication)Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of communication. The academic theory of gatekeeping is found in multiple fields of study, including communication studies, journalism, political science, and sociology. It was originally focused on the mass media with its few-to-many dynamic but now gatekeeping theory also addresses face-to-face communication and the many-to-many dynamic inherent in the Internet. The theory was first instituted by social psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1943. Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media structure — from a reporter deciding which sources are chosen to include in a story to editors deciding which stories are printed or covered, and includes media outlet owners and even advertisers. Individuals can also act as gatekeepers, deciding what information to include in an e-mail or in a blog, for example.
Group polarizationOverview Group polarization is the phenomenon that when placed in group situations, people will make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are in individual situations. The phenomenon has shown that after participating in a discussion group, members tend to advocate more extreme positions and call for riskier courses of action than individuals who did not participate in any such discussion. This phenomenon was originally coined risky shift but was found to apply to more than risk, so the replacement term choice shift has been suggested. The importance of group polarization is significant as it helps explain group behavior in a variety of real-life situations. Examples of these situations include public policy, terrorism, college life, and violence. History and origins In early studies, the risky-shift phenomenon was measured using a scale known as the Choice-Dilemmas Questionnaire. “Mr. ____Place a check here if you think Mr. Controversy
MalaysiaMalaysia ( i/məˈleɪʒə/ mə-LAY-zhə or Malaysia has its origins in the Malay Kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. Etymology "Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas Before the onset of European colonization, the Malay peninsula was known natively as Tanah Melayu ('Malay Land'). Under the racial classification created by European scholars the natives of Maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. History
Think TanksWhat is the new sociology of Ideas ? A Discussion with Charles Camic and Neil Gross - Transeo ReviewHumanities are not so common an object of investigation for social scientists. Other disciplines (intellectual history, political science or even philosophy) tend to challenge the accounts produced by sociologists. Moreover, the sophistication of disciplines such as philosophy or economic analysis can sometimes be a barrier for sociologists working on them. Could you briefly describe your personal trajectory, your education and past interests, and the reasons why you turned to the sociology of ideas ? Charles Camic : Although I “turned” about 10 years ago to using the expression “sociology of ideas” to describe my work, I’ve actually been doing research in this vein onward from my time in graduate school. When I was a sociology graduate student at the University of Chicago in the mid-1970s, my initial interests were social theory and the sociology of education. Neil Gross : You coined the phrase “new sociology of ideas” to describe the research field your works aim to contribute to.