Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right (informational social influence), and our need to be liked (normative social influence). Informational influence (or social proof) is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality. Informational influence comes into play when people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically ambiguous or because there is social disagreement. Normative influence is an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. Types Social Influence is a broad term that relates to many different phenomena. Kelman's varieties 1) Compliance 2) Identification Identification is the changing of attitudes or behaviors due to the influence of someone that is liked. 3) Internalization Conformity Conversion includes the private acceptance that is absent in compliance. Status
Related: Crowd Manipulation
PropagandaPropaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position. While the term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples, propaganda in its original sense was neutral and could refer to uses that were generally positive, such as public health recommendations, signs encouraging citizens to participate in a census or election, or messages encouraging persons to report crimes to law enforcement. Etymology From the 1790s, the term began being used also for propaganda in secular activities. The term began taking a pejorative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere. Types Defining propaganda has always been a problem. According to historian Zbyněk Zeman, propaganda is defined as either white, grey or black. US Office for War Information poster implying that working less helped the Axis powers.
5 Strategies to Read People’s Emotional EnergyEmotions are a stunning expression of our energy, the “vibe” we give off. We register these with intuition. Some people feel good to be around; they improve your mood and vitality. Emotional energy is contagious. When reading emotions, realize that what others say or how they appear frequently don‘t match their energy. Here, the surrender to focus on is saying “yes” to the messages your body sends. Strategies to read emotional energy Sense people’s presence - This is the overall energy we emit, not necessarily congruent with words or behaviour. As you read people notice: does their overall energy feel warm? Watch people’s eyes – We can make love or hate with our eyes. Take time to observe people‘s eyes. Notice the feel of a handshake, hug and touch – We share emotional energy through physical contact much like an electrical current. Listen for people’s tone of voice and laugh – The tone and volume of our voice can tell much about our emotions. Like this article? About the Author:
Gatekeeping (communication)Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of communication. The academic theory of gatekeeping is found in multiple fields of study, including communication studies, journalism, political science, and sociology. It was originally focused on the mass media with its few-to-many dynamic but now gatekeeping theory also addresses face-to-face communication and the many-to-many dynamic inherent in the Internet. The theory was first instituted by social psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1943. Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the media structure — from a reporter deciding which sources are chosen to include in a story to editors deciding which stories are printed or covered, and includes media outlet owners and even advertisers. Individuals can also act as gatekeepers, deciding what information to include in an e-mail or in a blog, for example.
Think TanksFront organizationA front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations. Front organizations can act for the parent group without the actions being attributed to the parent group. Intelligence agencies Intelligence agencies use front organizations to provide "cover", plausible occupations and means of income, for their covert agents. Organized crime Many organized crime operations have substantial legitimate businesses, such as licensed gambling houses, building construction companies, trash hauling services, or dock loading enterprises. Where brothels are illegal, criminal organizations set up front companies providing services such as a "massage parlor" or "sauna", up to the point that "massage parlor" or "sauna" is thought as a synonym of brothel in these countries. Religion Scientology Politics
Go Beyond Simple Networking and Organize Your Own Mastermind GroupImpression managementIn sociology and social psychology, impression management is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction (Piwinger & Ebert 2001, pp. 1–2). It is usually used synonymously with self-presentation, in which a person tries to influence the perception of their image. The notion of impression management also refers to practices in professional communication and public relations, where the term is used to describe the process of formation of a company's or organization's public image. Self-presentation While impression management and self-presentation are often used interchangeably, some authors have argued that they are not the same. Motives and strategies Self-presentation is expressive. People adopt many different impression management strategies. Theory Basic factors Erving Goffman
Supporting a Grieving Person: Helping Others Through Grief and LossWhat you need to know about bereavement and grief The death of a loved one is one of life’s most difficult experiences. The bereaved struggle with many intense and frightening emotions, including depression, anger, and guilt. Often, he or she feels isolated and alone in his or her grief, but having someone to lean on can help him or her through the grieving process. Don’t let discomfort prevent you from reaching out to someone grieving. Understanding the grieving process The better your understanding of grief and how it is healed, the better equipped you’ll be to help a bereaved friend or family member: There is no right or wrong way to grieve. What to say to someone who has lost a loved one It is common to feel awkward when trying to comfort someone who is grieving. Acknowledge the situation. Source: American Cancer Society Helping a grieving person tip 1: Listen with compassion Almost everyone worries about what to say to a grieving person. Accept and acknowledge all feelings.
ConformityConformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, unsaid rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others. This tendency to conform occurs in small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure. Conformity can occur in the presence of others, or when an individual is alone. For example, people tend to follow social norms when eating or watching television, even when alone. People often conform from a desire for security within a group—typically a group of a similar age, culture, religion, or educational status. Although peer pressure may manifest negatively, conformity can have good or bad effects depending on the situation. As conformity is a group phenomenon, factors such as group size, unanimity, cohesion, status, prior commitment, and public opinion help determine the level of conformity an individual displays. Age
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