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Quantitative versus Qualitative

Some researchers have argued that it may be appropriate to think of Qualitative & Quantitative as being on a continuum Gray and Densten (1998), Tashakkori & Teddlie (2003).

‘Qualitative and quantitative choices viewed as polar opposites may be viewed as a ‘false dualism’ (Frazer 1995).

Can you clarify & justify your own view and approach in your study?

How has your view evolved over the course of your PhD research? ◥ University. {q} PhD. {tr} Training. {R} Method. ⬛ NCRM. (Pat Cryer) Qualitative versus Quantitative Research. Before getting to grips with qualitative versus quantitative research, there are a few basic ideas that need to be understood.

So do read the next few sections carefully. The nature of 'truth' Research should be about discovering 'truth' - but what exactly is 'truth'? It often depends on how one looks at things - see the following box. Common idioms which illustrate how there are (at least) two sides to most viewpoints One person's terrorist is another person's freedom fighter. One person's meat is another person's poison. One person's junk is another person's antique. One person’s vice is another person's virtue. One person's security is another person's prison. One person's blessing is another person's curse. It is therefore important as a researcher to understand how you are looking at your research and to be able to explain this to others who need to know about your research. Research paradigms and frameworks Quite generally a way of looking at the world is known as a 'paradigm' . © Pat Cryer. (Pat Cryer) How a Research Methodology differs from a list of Research Methods.

While you are considering or refining research methods for your own research, it is worth noting the difference between 'research methods' and 'research methodology'. Although some supervisors* in some fields of study seem to regard them as the same, most academics take a research methodology to include an argument or a case for the methods that a researcher decides to use. In other words, a research methodology explains why certain research methods are used as well as what they are. This is just one more example of where imagining that one is a barrister making a case in a court of law orientates to what is needed - see also the page on the other roles that research students need to take on during their programme of work.

Research methods for particular research paradigms In making the case for your research methodology, you need to understand that no research methods or techniques necessarily sit in only one research paradigm. . © Pat Cryer. Methodology. Study of research methods Methodologies are traditionally divided into quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative research is the main methodology of the natural sciences.

It uses precise numerical measurements. Its goal is usually to find universal laws used to make predictions about future events. The dominant methodology in the natural sciences is called the scientific method. It includes steps like observation and the formulation of a hypothesis. Many discussions in methodology concern the question of whether the quantitative approach is superior, especially whether it is adequate when applied to the social domain. Definitions[edit] The term "methodology" is associated with a variety of meanings. As method[edit] As study of methods[edit] As discussion of background assumptions[edit] The discussion of background assumptions can include metaphysical and ontological issues in cases where they have important implications for the proper research methodology.

Types[edit] Others[edit] Dissertation Methodology | Advice. Search for PhD COURSES If you are a taking a taught or research-based masters course, or doing a PhD , then you will likely be asked to present a dissertation that includes research and data from a project of your own design. One of the key factors in writing a dissertation that successfully presents your research is the Dissertation Methodology. What is the Methodology? This is the section of your dissertation that explains how you carried out your research, where your data comes from, what sort of data gathering techniques you used, and so forth. Generally, someone reading your methodology should have enough information to be able to create methods very similar to the ones you used to obtain your data, but you do not have to include any questionnaires, reviews, interviews, etc that you used to conduct your research here.

This section is primarily for explaining why you chose to use those particular techniques to gather your data. A Scientific Approach Explain your methods. ☢️ Methods. ☢️ Methodologies. ☢️ Mix Methods. ☢️ Case Study. ☢️ Quasi Exp. ☢️ CSS. ☢️ Qualitative.

▶️ RM

MethodSpace | Connecting the Research Community. Dichotomy. A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets) that are: jointly exhaustive: everything must belong to one part or the other, andmutually exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts. Such a partition is also frequently called a bipartition. Treating continuous variables or multicategorical variables as binary variables is called dichotomization. The discretization error inherent in dichotomization is temporarily ignored for modeling purposes. Etymology[edit] The term dichotomy derived from the Greek language [ διχοτομία ']'dichotomia' "dividing in two" from δίχα dicha "in two, asunder" and τομή tome "a cutting, incision".

Usage[edit] See also[edit] Notes and references[edit] External links[edit] The dictionary definition of dichotomy at Wiktionary. Triangulation (social science) In the social sciences, triangulation is often used to indicate that two (or more) methods are used in a study in order to check the results. "The concept of triangulation is borrowed from navigational and land surveying techniques that determine a single point in space with the convergence of measurements taken from two other distinct points. "[1] The idea is that one can be more confident with a result if different methods lead to the same result. Triangulation is a powerful technique that facilitates validation of data through cross verification from two or more sources. In particular, it refers to the application and combination of several research methods in the study of the same phenomenon.[2] By combining multiple observers, theories, methods, and empirical materials, researchers can hope to overcome the weakness or intrinsic biases and the problems that come from single method, single-observer and single-theory studies.

Denzin (1978) identified four basic types of triangulation:[6] Quantitative research. In social sciences, quantitative research is widely used in psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, community health, health & human development, gender and political science, and less frequently in anthropology and history. Research in mathematical sciences such as physics is also 'quantitative' by definition, though this use of the term differs in context. In the social sciences, the term relates to empirical methods, originating in both philosophical positivism and the history of statistics, which contrast with qualitative research methods. Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses. Quantitative methods can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true. A comprehensive analysis of 1274 articles published in the top two American sociology journals between 1935 and 2005 found that roughly two thirds of these articles used quantitative methods.[2] Overview[edit] Use of statistics[edit]

Variable. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Variable may refer to: Hypothesis. A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.

Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.[1] The adjective hypothetical, meaning "having the nature of a hypothesis", or "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis", can refer to any of these meanings of the term "hypothesis".

Uses[edit] In Plato's Meno (86e–87b), Socrates dissects virtue with a method used by mathematicians,[2] that of "investigating from a hypothesis Scientific hypothesis[edit] Working hypothesis[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] Thick description. In anthropology and other fields, a thick description of a human behavior is one that explains not just the behavior, but its context as well, such that the behavior becomes meaningful to an outsider. The term was used by the anthropologist Clifford Geertz in his The Interpretation of Cultures (1973) to describe his own method of doing ethnography (Geertz 1973:5-6, 9-10).

Since then, the term and the methodology it represents has gained currency in the social sciences and beyond. Today, "thick description" is used in a variety of fields, including the type of literary criticism known as New Historicism. In his essay "Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture" (1973), Geertz explains that he adopted the term from philosopher Gilbert Ryle, specifically his lecture "What is le Penseur doing? " Adoption[edit] Geertz is revered for his pioneering field methods and clear, accessible prose writing style. See also[edit] References[edit] [edit] Bibliography[edit] Geertz, Clifford.

☢️ Scientific Method

☢️ Action R' Mapping Strategic Management Research. Putting Time in Perspective. ACI. Academic Talks. Seminars & Workshops. ACPI. Research Methodology. Ethics Dilemmas. Research Methodology. Designing your research methodology. Bibliometrics. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze academic literature.[1] Citation analysis and content analysis are commonly used bibliometric methods. While bibliometric methods are most often used in the field of library and information science, bibliometrics have wide applications in other areas.

Many research fields use bibliometric methods to explore the impact of their field,[2] the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper. Usage[edit] Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit.[3] Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. History[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Presentism (literary and historical analysis) In literary and historical analysis, presentism is a mode of literary or historical analysis in which present-day ideas and perspectives are anachronistically introduced into depictions or interpretations of the past. Some modern historians seek to avoid presentism in their work because they believe it creates a distorted understanding of their subject matter.[1] The practice of presentism is a common fallacy in historical writings.[2] The Oxford English Dictionary gives the first citation for presentism in its historiographic sense from 1916, and the word may have been used in this meaning as early as the 1870s.

The historian David Hackett Fischer identifies presentism as a fallacy also known as the "fallacy of nunc pro tunc". He has written that the "classic example" of presentism was the so-called "Whig history", in which certain eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British historians wrote history in a way that used the past to validate their own political beliefs. Types of research methods and disciplines. A dissertation is an extended piece of writing based on comprehensive reading and research, written by an academic scholar at an undergraduate, masters or post graduate level.

In some cases, a dissertation is referred to an academic research document written at PhD level, while a Thesis may be one which is written by an academic at Masters or Undergraduate level. However the opposite is also true in other cases. Etymology[edit] The word ‘dissertation’ was derived from the Latin word dissertātiō which means ‘discourse’ or ‘path. Types of Research[edit] There are two types of research which can be done to develop a thesis or dissertation: Practical Research: The practical approach consists of the empirical study of the topic under research and chiefly consists of hands on approach. Types of Research Method[edit] Descriptive/Qualitative[edit] This type of research methods involve describing in details specific situation using research tools like interviews, surveys, and observations.[3] [edit]

Social Research Methods. Metodix. Research Methodology in Strategy and Management. Research Methodology in Strategy and Management. Objectivism. Objectivism, or Objectivist, may refer to: Social. Etymology[edit] Definition[edit] In the absence of agreement about its meaning, the term "social" is used in many different senses and regarded as a fuzzy concept, referring among other things to: The adjective "social" is also used often in political discourse, although its meaning in a context depends heavily on who is using it. In left-wing circles it is often used to imply a liberal characteristic, while in right-wing circles it is generally used to imply a conservative characteristic. It should also be noted that, overall, this adjective is used much more often by those on the political left than by those on the political right.

For these reasons, those seeking to avoid association with the left-right political debates often seek to label their work with phrases that do not include the word "social". Social theorists[edit] Social in "Socialism"[edit] The modern concept of socialism evolved in response to the development of industrial capitalism.

Modern uses[edit] See also[edit] Postpositivism. Social influence. Compartmentalization (psychology) Sentiment analysis. Interoperability. ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. Research Methods Festival 2012. Electronic Resources for Research Methods. How to Reduce Number of Variables and Detect Relationships, Principal Components and Factor Analysis. Fishbone Diagrams. Meta-analysis. Scientometrics. Domain analysis. Co-citation. Factor analysis. Pathfinder network.