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French social commentator and political thinker Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (;[2] French: [mɔ̃tɛskjø]; 18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher. He is the principal source of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. Biography Montesquieu was born at the Château de la Brède in southwest France, 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Bordeaux.[4] His father, Jacques de Secondat, was a soldier with a long noble ancestry. Montesquieu's early life occurred at a time of significant governmental change. Montesquieu withdrew from the practice of law to devote himself to study and writing. Lettres familières à divers amis d'Italie, 1767 Montesquieu was also highly regarded in the British colonies in North America as a champion of liberty (though not of American independence). Philosophy of history Political views Related:  refferences-1

Parsifal Opera by Richard Wagner Parsifal (WWV 111) is an opera in three acts by German composer Richard Wagner. It is loosely based on Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach, a 13th-century epic poem of the Arthurian knight Parzival (Percival) and his quest for the Holy Grail (12th century). Wagner conceived the work in April 1857, but did not finish it until 25 years later. It was his last completed opera, and in composing it he took advantage of the particular acoustics of his Bayreuth Festspielhaus. Wagner described Parsifal not as an opera, but as Ein Bühnenweihfestspiel ("A Festival Play for the Consecration of the Stage").[1] At Bayreuth a tradition has arisen that audiences do not applaud at the end of the first act. Wagner's spelling of Parsifal instead of the Parzival that he had used up to 1877 is informed by one of the theories about the name Percival, according to which it is of Arabic origin, Parsi (or Parseh) Fal meaning "pure (or poor) fool".[2][3][4][5] Composition[edit] Applause[edit]

Edmund Burke Burke was praised by both conservatives and liberals in the 19th century.[5] Since the 20th century, he has generally been viewed as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism.[6][7] Early life[edit] Burke was born in Dublin, Ireland, to a prosperous solicitor father (Richard; died 1761) of the Church of Ireland. It is unclear if this is the same Richard Burke who converted from Catholicism.[8][9] His mother Mary (c. 1702 – 1770), whose maiden name was Nagle, was a Roman Catholic and came from an impoverished but genteel County Cork family. The Burke dynasty descended from an Anglo-Norman surnamed de Burgh (Latinised as de Burgo) who arrived in Ireland in 1185 following the Norman invasion of Ireland by Henry II of England in 1171.[10] Mr. Once an MP, Burke was required to take the oath of allegiance and abjuration, the oath of supremacy, and declare against transubstantiation. Early writing[edit] Member of Parliament[edit] The Gregories estate, purchased by Burke for £20,000 in 1768.

Montesquieu Montesquieu en 1728 (peinture anonyme). Blason Signature Il voyage ensuite en Europe et séjourne plus d'un an en Angleterre où il observe la monarchie constitutionnelle et parlementaire qui a remplacé la monarchie autocratique. De retour dans son château de La Brède au sud de Bordeaux, il se consacre à ses grands ouvrages qui associent histoire et philosophie politique : Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1734) et De l'Esprit des lois (1748), dans lequel il développe sa réflexion sur la répartition des fonctions de l'État entre ses différentes composantes, appelée postérieurement « principe de séparation des pouvoirs ». Montesquieu, avec entre autres John Locke, est l'un des penseurs de l'organisation politique et sociale sur lesquels les sociétés modernes et politiquement libérales s'appuient. Biographie Il se passionne pour les sciences et mène des expériences scientifiques (anatomie, botanique, physique, etc.). Philosophie Les principes Postérité

Prosper Mérimée Education and literary debut[edit] Prosper Mérimée was born in Paris on September 28, 1803, early in the Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. His father Léonor was a painter who became professor of design at the École polytechnique, and was engaged in a study of the chemistry of oil paints. In 1807 his father was named of Permanent Secretary of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He finished the Lycée with high marks in classical languages and in 1820 he began to study law, planning for a position in the royal administration. Between the spring of 1823 and the summer of 1824, he wrote his first literary works: a political and historical play called Cromwell; a satirical piece called Les Espagnols en Dannark (The Spanish in Denmark); and a set of six short theater pieces called the Théâtre de Clara Gazul, a witty commentary about the theater, politics and life which purported to be written by a Spanish actress, but which actually targeted current French politics and society. Works[edit]

Roman Republic Period of ancient Roman civilization (509–27 BC) The Roman Republic (Latin: Rēs pūblica Rōmāna [ˈreːs ˈpuːblɪka roːˈmaːna]) was the era of classical Roman civilization, led by the Roman people, beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. During this period, Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was primarily a cultural mix of Latin and Etruscan societies, as well as of Sabine, Oscan, and Greek cultural elements, which is especially visible in the Roman Pantheon. Its political organization developed at around the same time direct democracy did in Ancient Greece, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate.[4] The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, legislative, judicial, military, and religious powers. History[edit] [edit]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau Signature Vue de la sépulture. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, né le 28 juin 1712 à Genève et mort le 2 juillet 1778 à Ermenonville, est un écrivain, philosophe et musicien genevois francophone. Orphelin de mère très jeune, sa vie est marquée par l'errance. Dans le domaine philosophique, la lecture en 1749 de la question mise au concours par l'Académie de Dijon : « le rétablissement des sciences et des arts a-t-il contribué à épurer ou à corrompre les mœurs ? La philosophie politique de Rousseau est bâtie autour de l'idée que l'Homme est naturellement bon et que la société le corrompt. La philosophie politique de Rousseau exerce une influence considérable lors de la période révolutionnaire durant laquelle son livre le Contrat social est « redécouvert ». Selon Claude Lévi-Strauss, Rousseau est le premier véritable fondateur de l'anthropologie, notamment car ce dernier aurait par son universalisme posé « en termes presque modernes » le problème du passage de la nature à la culture. Sommaire Décès

Walter Savage Landor Walter Savage Landor (30 January 1775 – 17 September 1864) was an English writer, poet, and activist. His best known works were the prose Imaginary Conversations, and the poem Rose Aylmer, but the critical acclaim he received from contemporary poets and reviewers was not matched by public popularity. As remarkable as his work was, it was equalled by his rumbustious character and lively temperament. Both his writing and political activism, such as his support for Lajos Kossuth and Giuseppe Garibaldi, were imbued with his passion for liberal and republican causes.[1] He befriended and influenced the next generation of literary reformers such as Charles Dickens and Robert Browning.[1] Summary of his work[edit] In a long and active life of eighty-nine years Landor produced a considerable amount of work in various genres. Landor wrote much sensitive and beautiful poetry. Summary of his life[edit] Early life[edit] South Wales and Gebir[edit] Ah, what avails the sceptred race, I consecrate to thee.

John Locke John Locke FRS (/ˈlɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".[1][2][3] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.[4] Life and work Locke's father, also called John, was a country lawyer and clerk to the Justices of the Peace in Chew Magna,[6] who had served as a captain of cavalry for the Parliamentarian forces during the early part of the English Civil War. Influence Constitution of Carolina