background preloader


"Valinorean" redirects here. For the language of the Valar, see Valarin. Tolkien began devising the language at around 1910 and re-structured the grammar several times until Quenya reached its final state. The language featured prominently in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy, as well as in his posthumously published history of Middle-earth The Silmarillion. External history[edit] J. The ingredients in Quenya are various, but worked out into a self-consistent character not precisely like any language that I know. Tolkien never intended Quenya, or any of his constructed languages, to be used in everyday life as an international auxiliary language,[5] although he was in favour of the idea of Esperanto as an auxiliary language within Europe.[6] With his Quenya, Tolkien pursued a double aesthetic goal: "classical and inflected".[4] This urge, in fact, was the motivation for his creation of a 'mythology'. Development[edit] In his lifetime, J. Publication of linguistic papers[edit] Related:  Tolkienjrrt

Learn Elvish (a little bit of philosophy) So, you made up your mind to learn Elvish? I absolutely love the Elvish languages, so I can understand that perfectly, and I wish you plenty of joy! But there's a question which you might want to ask yourself early on - and maybe later as well - what do you mean by 'learning'? Do you wish to speak the language, write Elvish poetry and read Elvish stories, use it in roleplaying games and write Elvish letters to your friends? Because all that is actually possible - well, kind of, and that's why I am asking the question. But that is not how Tolkien ever thought about the languages. Tolkien never viewed his creations as finished - he was always revising and altering things - even for published things (which he couldn't really alter) he re-invented the underlying explanation - a good example is Gil-Galad - in Letters:279 he states But in fact, in Letters:426 a completely different explanation is brought forward: Why am I telling all this to you? Back to the index

Neo-Quenya/Adjectives Quenya has 3 types of adjectives depending on their final letter: adjectives in -a: alta "big" corna "round" larca "swift, rapid" raica "bent" farëa "enough" adjectives in -ë: leucë "sick" ninquë "white" carnë "red" adjectives in -n; most end in -in but some in -en: marin "ripe" qualin "dead" peren "patient" Adjectives are mostly placed in front of the noun to which they belong: larca sírë "a rapid river" i ninquë fanya "the white cloud" It is emphasized by putting it after its noun: mallë raica "a bent (and not straight) road" With a proper noun adjectives are always put behind the noun: Elendil Voronda "Elendil (the) Faithful, Faithful Elendil" Adjectives can also be used predicatively with the verb ná: i parma ná carnë "the book is red" In such short sentences ná (or nar) is often omitted: i parma carnë "the book is red" Plural[edit] Adjectives have only one plural form; it is used whenever the noun it belongs to is not singular (so dual, plural and partitive plural make no difference for the adjective):

Sindar The Sindar were happy in Middle-earth, but once the desire for the Sea was aroused in them, they could not be content until they sailed to Eldamar. Although less learned and powerful than the Calaquendi and less interested in crafts than the Noldor, they were extremely gifted in music, and their voices were very fair. Other Teleri also stayed behind: these were the friends of Ossë the Maia, who had fallen in love with the shores of Middle-earth, and did not wish to depart. Their leader was Círdan, and they established cities at Eglarest and Brithombar. They were known as the Falathrim, or Elves of the Falas (Shore). They were not part of the realm of Eglador, but still took Thingol as their King. Yet other stray bands of Teleri settled in Nevrast and Hithlum to the north of Eglador, although these did not form any realms. Just before the arrival of the Noldorin exiles, the Dark Lord Morgoth returned to his old stronghold of Angband, and his activities increased. Notable Sindar[edit]

Tom Bombadil From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tom Bombadil is a supporting character in J. R. Appearances Literature The Adventures of Tom Bombadil Tolkien invented Tom Bombadil in honour of his children's Dutch doll, and wrote light-hearted children's poems about him, imagining him as a nature-spirit evocative of the English countryside, which in Tolkien's time had begun to disappear. Tolkien's 1934 poem "The Adventures of Tom Bombadil" depicts Bombadil as a "merry fellow" living in a dingle close to the Withywindle river, where he wanders, exploring nature at his leisure. The poems were published in the collections The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and later in Tales from the Perilous Realm. The Lord of the Rings Tom first appears within the story after Merry and Pippin are trapped by Old Man Willow and Frodo cries for help. Frodo spends two nights in Tom Bombadil's house, each night dreaming a different dream, which are implied to be either clairvoyant or prophetic. Characteristics Names and titles

Parma Tyelpelassiva Ai merilyë hirë issë eldalambion, utúlielyë mára nomenna! Ai umilyë quetë i lambë Noldoiva var i lambë Sindaiva nan merilyë ista, len orë cé cenda parmat nóleva. Ai polilyë hanya sinë lambi, merin sa haryalyë alassë cendala i quetar ar líri! Ae aníral hired ist o laim edhellin, tullil na had vaer! If it is your wish to find knowledge about the Elvish languages, you have come to a good place! Contents Nern a glîr edhellin - Sindarin texts and poetry I vrennil vain ben-dihenad a translation of 'La Belle Dame sans Merci' by John Keats. Thia sui balan enni... Thinnant Ithil another poem by Sappho.Calligraphy by Evenstar on Ambar-Eldaron I nennin a slightly depressing poem by myself. Aduial a haiku-like poem by myself. Cuil nîn prestannen a lovesong by myself. Man râd bedithon aen? Laer al Lothiel a lovesong, written by myself. In oer Ivann an autumn-poem by myself. Rath Fair a translation of the song 'Man's Road' by America. Erin daen Hithaeglir a complete short story in Sindarin. Quenya

Neo-Quenya/Declension Paradigms This page contains the paradigms of the nouns that do not have a separate stem-form or are related to such nouns, i.e. nouns on -anouns on the consonants -l, -n, -r, -s, -t The others can be found on the pages about: nouns on -a[edit] We use ampa "hook": The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use alda "tree"): Nom. aldu, Gen. alduo, Poss. alduva, Dat. aldun, Abl. aldullo, All. aldunna, Loc. aldussë, Instr. aldunen, Resp. aldus. Note: nouns on -oa probably have a genitive singular in -avo: coa "house" → cavo and always have a t-dual. nouns on -l[edit] We use macil "sword": The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use sutil "slime"): Nom. sutilu, Gen. sutiluo, Poss. sutiluva, Dat. sutilun, Abl. sutilullo, All. sutilunna, Loc. sutilussë, Instr. sutilunen, Resp. sutilus. nouns on -n[edit] We use aran "king": The u-duals in this group are declined as follows (we use atan "human, man"): Nom. atanu, Gen. atanuo, Poss. atanuva, Dat. atanun, nouns on -r[edit] We use luxor "swamp, bog":

Esgaroth A drawing of Esgaroth Esgaroth appears to be a city-state, always independent of Dale, and a republic with no king (the only real republic shown in Middle-earth). The people had always elected from among the old and wise the Master of Lake-town and did "not [endure] the rule of mere fighting men." History[edit] Master of Lake-town[edit] Master of Lake-town is the title given to the elected leader of Esgaroth. In other media[edit] In the Real Time Strategy game, The Battle for Middle Earth II, the settlement of Esgaroth is featured in the campaign and available for skirmish. Notes[edit] References[edit] Tolkien, J. External links[edit] Esgaroth at the Tolkien Gateway

Lord of the Rings Fanatics Archive Archive Home > Movies - The Fellowship of the Ring Huorn of Fangorn Points: 956 Posts: 1119 Joined: 01/Jan/2004 ...o.k that thread title is a little misleading, but seeing as you are here now. Tom Bombadil does feature in the film, well, some of his lines do anyway...on the extended D.V.D of the Two Towers, Treebeard says a line to the willow whos fissures Merry and Pippin fall into, the line Treebeard speaks is one of Tom’s something along the lines of "you should not be waking, dig deep, eat earth, *something which i can’t remember* go to sleep!" has anybody else noticed similar occurrences throughout any of the films?!? sorry, just remembered another one, Wormtongue’s infamous words to Eowyn, are actually Gandalfs in the book, but it worked better with Wormtongue saying them in the fiml i thought. Pilgrim of Isengard Points: 1663 Posts: 3518 Joined: 20/Jun/2002 Yes, that did remind me of good old Tom Bombadil, but I never really proved it as one of his quotes. Túrin24/Feb/2004 at 07:05 PM

Write Your Name in Elvish in Ten Minutes Write Your Name in Elvish in Ten Minutes You want to write your name in Elvish, but every place you go seems to make it harder than it ought to be. Elvish writing looks beautiful and mysterious, but does it really have to be impossible to understand? Why doesn't somebody just spell out the alphabet so you can simply substitute the letters and get straight to the result? That's exactly what I've done here. Learn to write your name in Elvish in ten minutes. Here's the alphabet. That's it. Generally the vowels go above the consonants, but sometimes, in the case of Y and silent E, they go below. The straight line underneath is just one way to make one character do the work of two. The line above a consonant means that a nasal N or M precedes the consonant in question. Here's one last example with two different letter combinations. I am often asked how to handle double vowel situations. That's all you need to get started. Good luck! Ned Gulley Want an Elvish tattoo? Want an Elvish t-shirt?

Německá gramatika Tento článek popisuje některá základní pravidla gramatiky německého jazyka. Podstatná jména[editovat | editovat zdroj] Píšeme vždy velké počáteční písmeno. V textu používáme členy, ne však vždy. Množné číslo se tvoří pomocí členu die, někdy pomocí přehlásky, či koncovky. Skloňování probíhá hlavně pomocí členu. Členy substantiv[editovat | editovat zdroj] Členy určité[editovat | editovat zdroj] Členy určité používáme pro označení konkrétní věci, které známe. Členy neurčité[editovat | editovat zdroj] V množném čísle není neurčitý člen používán, v tomto případě se používá podstatné jméno bez členu. Přídavná jména[editovat | editovat zdroj] Přídavná jména mohou ve větě být v přívlastku nebo v přísudku. Přídavná jména v přísudku[editovat | editovat zdroj] Přídavná jména, která jsou v přísudku – po slovese sein – nemají žádnou koncovku a jsou tedy ve stejném tvaru pro všechny rody i čísla. Du bist fleißig. – Ty jsi pilný/á/é.Sie ist fleißig. – Ona je pilná. Stupňování[editovat | editovat zdroj] Wer?

Dúnedain History[edit] Sauron's spirit fled from Númenor to Middle-earth, and he again raised mighty armies to challenge the new Dúnedain kingdoms, Gondor and Arnor. With the aid of Gil-galad and the Elves, Sauron was defeated, and he vanished into the wild East for many centuries. Gondor and Arnor prospered during this time. As Sauron began to re-form and gather strength, a series of deadly plagues came from the East. After the fall of Arthedain, a remnant of the northern Dúnedain became the Rangers of the North, doing what they could to keep the peace in the near-empty lands of their Fathers. Over the centuries, the southern Dúnedain of Gondor intermarried more and more with so-called Middle Men. In the Fourth Age, the Dúnedain of Gondor and Arnor were reunited under King Aragorn II Elessar (who was also called the Dúnadan). In addition to the Faithful, there were Dúnedain in the South who manned Númenórean garrisons at places like Umbar. Characteristics[edit] See also[edit] External links[edit]

Atar Atar[pronunciation?] (Avestan ātar) is the Zoroastrian concept of holy fire, sometimes described in abstract terms as "burning and unburning fire" or "visible and invisible fire" (Mirza, 1987:389). In the Avestan language, ātar is an attribute of sources of heat and light, of which the nominative singular form is ātarš, source of Persian āteš (fire). It was once thought to be etymologically related to the Avestan āθrauuan / aθaurun (Vedic atharvan), a type of priest, but that is now considered unlikely (Boyce, 2002:16). The ultimate etymology of ātar, previously unknown (Boyce, 2002:1), is now believed to be from the Indo-European *hxehxtr- 'fire'. [1] This would make it related to the Latin ater (black) and either a loan source or cognate of the Serbian ватра / vatra (fire) (also of the Romanian vatră (hearth, home, fireplace), of possible Dacian or Paleo-Balkanic origin), which sets Serbian apart from other Slavonic languages, e.g. In scripture[edit] In the Gathic texts[edit]