Guano Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Guano, à prononcer [gwano], provenant du quechua wanu, est le nom donné aux excréments des oiseaux marins et des chauves-souris. Il peut être utilisé en tant qu’engrais très efficace, en vertu de sa grande concentration en composés azotés. Les sols manquant de matières organiques peuvent alors être rendus bien plus productifs. Composition[modifier | modifier le code] Exploitation[modifier | modifier le code] Ce dessin, publié en 1863, comporte cinq images montrant différentes facettes de l'exploitation du guano aux îles Chincha. Le guano est récolté sur diverses îles du Pacifique, par exemple les îles Chincha, ou d’autres océans, comme l’île Juan de Nova. Le guano a été récolté par des compagnies privées ou publiques pendant des siècles sur les côtes du Pérou, sur les îles et les côtes rocheuses qui ne furent pas exploitées auparavant. Le guano a aussi été exploité sur l'île de Clipperton autour du début du XXe siècle.
Ethno Med - Alaska Native - History - Historical Trauma - Geriatrics - Stanford Medicine Definition Historical trauma is the accumulative emotional and psychological pain over an individual’s lifespan and across generations as the result of massive group trauma (Yellow-Horse Brave Heart, 1995). Historical trauma can have varied effects on individuals and populations that may include: unsettled trauma or grief, depression, high mortality, increase of alcohol abuse, child abuse and domestic violence. Examples of historical trauma have been observed among Lakota and other American Indian populations, and Jewish Holocaust survivors and descendants (Brave Heart, 2000). Background The historical trauma of Alaska Natives is closely related to external events impacting them over hundreds of years; however, the underpinnings of historical trauma predate back to the ethnocentric stance of the Russians and the missionaries. Many older Alaska Natives grew up in a time when the basic foundation of the social life that bonds the Alaska Native culture and communities together was damaged.
Plessy v. Ferguson Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal". The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1 with the majority opinion written by Justice Henry Billings Brown and the dissent written by Justice John Marshall Harlan. After the Supreme Court ruling, the New Orleans Comité des Citoyens (Committee of Citizens), which had brought the suit and had arranged for Homer Plessy's arrest, in an act of civil disobedience in order to challenge Louisiana's segregation law, replied, "We, as freemen, still believe that we were right and our cause is sacred Background Marker placed at Press and Royal Streets in New Orleans on February 12, 2009 commemorating the arrest of Homer Plessy on June 7, 1892 for violating the Louisiana 1890 Separate Car Act. In his case, Homer Adolph Plessy v.
Jim Crow laws The Jim Crow laws were a number of laws of the United States. These laws were enforced in different states between 1876 and 1965. "Jim Crow" laws provided a systematic legal basis for segregating and discriminating against African-Americans. The laws first appeared after the Civil War and the Reconstruction era and were enforced through the mid twentieth century. "Jim Crow Laws." 7/3/19: Crown Act- California 1st state to ban hair discrimination SportsPulse: In 2018, is it fair for athletes to have to choose competition over lifestyle? Trysta Krick gets reaction from Alabama and Oklahoma players on the viral video of the New Jersey wrestler who had to cut his dreadlocks to compete in a match. USA TODAY SAN FRANCISCO – California on Wednesday became the first state to protect citizens from discrimination based on hairstyle, a law greeted with both enthusiasm and a touch of dismay by people of color. “I’m not going to say we shouldn’t have a law that allows us to wear our hair the way it naturally is, but it’s also sad that in 2019, we have to have one in the first place,” said Tiffany Dena Loftin, youth and college director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. “It’s a step in the right direction,” she said, noting that the NAACP has monitored cases in which there was discrimination based on a natural hairstyle. In signing Senate Bill 188 before the Fourth of July, California Gov.
Manichéisme (religion) C'est un syncrétisme du zoroastrisme, du bouddhisme et du christianisme ; les partisans de ce dernier le combattirent avec véhémence. Le manichéisme s'introduisit dans l'Empire romain, notamment en Égypte et en Afrique romaine, et fit l'objet d'un décret de persécution en 297, en raison de sa nouveauté, opposée au culte romain traditionnel, et de son origine persane, donc provenant des ennemis des Romains. Les décrets de tolérance religieuse de 311 et 313 (édit de Milan), principalement énoncés pour arrêter la persécution contre les chrétiens, mirent fin à cette période de persécution. Les Ouïgours du qaghanat de l'Orkhon (744-840), protecteurs de la Chine des Tang à la suite de la rébellion d'An Lushan qui s'acheva en 762, se convertirent au manichéisme à l'exemple de leur qaghan Bögü, et leur religion s'épanouit dans ce qui est la Mongolie moderne et le bassin du Tarim jusque vers la fin du Ier millénaire. Un des fondements du manichéisme est de séparer le monde en deux : En français
Equity, Humor, and Inuit Brainpower Equity’s not an option but laughter makes it happen more, Inuit elders told me when I facilitated leaders on Baffin Island, near Greenland. Unsure why your workplace acts as if all humans were not its highest currency? Wonder why we wage wars at work that kill opportunities and maim innocent people? Question why bumps and bruises strike down daily when you least expect? Stress increases from discrimination, and lack of healthy humor at work increases cortisol, a dangerous hormone that can be at odds with brainpower. No surprise that cortisol can decrease brainpower, since this mental toxin literally shrinks a brain itself, and can shave years off life. Few deny that inequity and diminished brainpower define toxic workplaces, yet Inuit leaders laugh as a serotonin tactic to lower unfair barriers. Equity proliferates where workers share secrets that prosper all In turn, seniors taught youth to navigate rugged tundra far north of tree lines. Inuit humor transforms hardship into hope at work
Black Code and Jim Crow Law examples - Black Codes and Jim Crow Some common elements of Black Codes were: Race was defined by blood; the presence of any amount of black blood made one black.Employment was required of all freedmen; violators faced vagrancy charges.Freedmen could not assemble without the presence of a white person.Freedmen were assumed to be agricultural workers and their duties and hours were tightly regulated.Freedmen were not to be taught to read or write.Public facilities were segregated.Violators of these laws were subject to being whipped or branded. Some Black Codes in Louisiana: Some Black Codes in Mississippi: Some South Carolina Black Codes: Kentucky Jim Crow Laws: Prohibited whites from marrying any Negro or any descendant of any Negro to the third generation inclusive. North Carolina Jim Crow Laws:
Civil Rights Act de 1964 Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Aux États-Unis le Civil Rights Act (plusieurs lois américaines portent ce nom) du 2 juillet 1964, signé par le président des États-Unis, Lyndon Baines Johnson, a déclaré illégale la discrimination reposant sur la race, la couleur, la religion, le sexe, ou l’origine nationale. Il était conçu au départ pour protéger les droits des Afro-américains. Les lois Jim Crow des États du Sud furent abolies et la ségrégation raciale fut abolie dans les écoles et ailleurs. Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code]
Fatalities and racism In conjunction with IRR News and the European Race Progamme, we are undertaking a number of rolling research projects to collate the extent of and analyse trends in deaths which are in one way or another connected to state and/or popular racism. The research results are published via regular online reports and briefing papers, as well as noted bi-weekly in our regular calendar of racism and resistance. Ongoing cases are also reported on IRR News. Deaths in custody: Examines suspicious deaths which take place in the custody of prisons, special hospitals and in encounters with the police; the ensuing inquests into such deaths and subsequent disciplining or punishment of those involved. Deaths related to racial violence: The most extreme cases of racial attack can result in a loss of life. This project examines all those cases which appear to be linked to racial violence, the conduct of the police, prosecuting authorities, any subsequent trial and conviction.
Jean-François Lyotard - Wikipedia Biography Early life, educational background, and family Jean François Lyotard was born on August 10, 1924 in Vincennes, France to Jean-Pierre Lyotard, a sales representative, and Madeleine Cavalli. He went to primary school at the Paris Lycée Buffon and Louis-le-Grand. As a child, Lyotard had many aspirations: to be an artist, a historian, a Dominican monk, and a writer. He later gave up the dream of becoming a writer when he finished writing an unsuccessful fictional novel at the age of 15. Ultimately, Lyotard describes the realization that he would not become any of these occupations as "fate" in his autobiography called Peregrinations, published in 1986. He studied philosophy at the Sorbonne in the late 1940s. Political life In 1954, Lyotard became a member of Socialisme ou Barbarie, a French political organisation formed in 1948 around the inadequacy of the Trotskyist analysis to explain the new forms of domination in the Soviet Union. Academic career
Science - The First Years Fallacy | Inside The Teenage Brain | FRONTLINE For certain functions, neurologists have found a critical period of time at which a child must have sensory or motor input. If a particular stimuli is not present at that time in early development, the window closes and the opportunity is lost forever. In a famous experiment, two scientists, David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel, illustrated that a kitten, temporarily blinded in one eye at a crucial developmental period, would never recover its sight in that eye even when the blindfold was taken off. It would not develop what is called binocular vision. The other mechanism guiding brain development is called "experience-dependent" and refers to experiences that are unique not to the species, but to the individual. Most Learning Takes Place Throughout Our Lives Most human learning is not dependent on sensitive or critical periods or on lessons being taught at a particular age. For language development as a whole, it appears that the critical period is much longer than it is for sight.
Black Codes (United States) Since the colonial period, colonies and states had passed laws that discriminated against free Blacks. In the South, these were generally included in "slave codes"; the goal was to reduce influence of free blacks (particularly after slave rebellions) because of their potential influence on slaves. Restrictions included prohibiting them from voting (although North Carolina allowed this before 1831), bearing arms, gathering in groups for worship and learning to read and write. A major purpose of these laws was to preserve slavery among other things. In the first two years after the Civil War, white-dominated southern legislatures passed Black Codes modeled after the earlier slave codes. Two Snakes Slavery wus a bad thing en' freedom, of de kin' we got wid nothin' to live on wus bad. Convicts leased to harvest timber circa 1915, in Florida Mississippi rejected the Thirteenth Amendment on December 5, 1865. Belz, Herman. Birnbaum, Jonathan and Taylor, Clarence, eds. (2000).
XIIIe amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le XIIIe amendement à la Constitution des États-Unis d'Amérique a officiellement aboli et interdit l'esclavage aux États-Unis. Il obtint la majorité spéciale des deux tiers requise pour amender la constitution et fut adopté par le Parlement le 6 décembre 1865. À cette date, le président Abraham C. Tout le monde s'accordait sur le caractère bancal de la proclamation d'émancipation, vu son fondement juridique particulièrement contestable. Texte[modifier | modifier le code] « Section 1. « Section 1. « Section 2. « Section 2. Histoire[modifier | modifier le code] Après avoir débattu l'amendement, le Sénat le vota le 8 avril 1864, par un vote de 38 contre 6. Lors de sa première présentation, la Chambre refusa de voter le projet du sénat. Le XIIIe amendement compléta la législation pour abolir l'esclavage, abolition qui avait commencé par la proclamation d'émancipation publiée par le président Abraham Lincoln en 1863.