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What a difference a word can make

What a difference a word can make
People spend a good deal of time talking to one another, and in general we do it pretty well. We might feel excited, angry, embarrassed, or — if we’re lucky — loved, in the course of our daily conversations. So is there any benefit to thinking about a science of talk? Can we really gain anything from scientific analysis of something we “just do”? I believe we can, and I’ve spent the last 20 years studying real talk from real people talking to each other in real time. Take this ordinary telephone call between two friends, Nancy and Hyla, transcribed according to the standard conversation analysis transcription system, which includes intonation and the actual sounds being made rather than just the correct spelling of a word (lines under a word represent emphasis and different movements in pitch, the equals sign means that the turns are very rapid): On the face of it, this is utterly mundane. Perhaps this seems obvious. Like Nancy, Gordon produces an answering “hello.” 1. 2. 3. 4. Related:  words, linguistics, semantics and semioticsFormation

Mouth clicks used in human echolocation captured in unprecedented detail Like some bats and marine mammals, people can develop expert echolocation skills, in which they produce a clicking sound with their mouths and listen to the reflected sound waves to "see" their surroundings. A new study published in PLOS Computational Biology provides the first in-depth analysis of the mouth clicks used in human echolocation. The research, performed by Lore Thaler of Durham University, U.K., Galen Reich and Michael Antoniou of Birmingham University, U.K., and colleagues, focuses on three blind adults who have been expertly trained in echolocation. Since the age of 15 or younger, all three have used echolocation in their daily lives. They use the technique for such activities as hiking, visiting unfamiliar cities, and riding bicycles. While the existence of human echolocation is well documented, the details of the underlying acoustic mechanisms have been unclear. "The results allow us to create virtual human echolocators," Thaler says. Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert!

Management de la complexité : de quoi parle-t-on exactement ? - Aujourd’hui en entreprise la complication est la réponse à la complexité Un manager prend aujourd’hui en une journée autant de décisions qu’un manager en prenait en un mois cent ans auparavant avec (en gros) le même cerveau ! A l’évidence, le monde du travail devient de plus en plus complexe. Les 3 attitudes possible du manager face à la complexité : Subir, fuir ou assumer ! Face à cette complexité croissante, chaque manager essaie sa recette mais l’ensemble de ces recettes peuvent être regroupées en trois catégories de stratégies comportementales possibles : subir, fuir ou assumer. Quelques-uns fuient ou nient ce monde complexe (bien réel pourtant) et se posent à sa marge dans une posture nostalgique ou idéaliste. Le credo du manager de demain : Assumer la complexité et rejeter la complication. L’instinct de cette minorité de managers assumant avec succès la complexité du monde d’aujourd’hui est que la complication n’est jamais une bonne réponse à la complexité. La frugalité La noblesse

Vocabulary Games Studying chimpanzee calls for clues about the origins of human language Freud, Wilkie and the other chimpanzees peacefully fed and rested in the sun-dappled Tanzanian forest. Mzee Hilali stood next to me, writing notes on the chimpanzees’ behavior, as he had been doing for over 30 years as a field assistant for Jane Goodall’s long-term study at Gombe National Park. Suddenly, a strange, high-pitched call sounded from where some other chimpanzees were feeding, about a hundred meters from us. Hilali turned to me, and with a little laugh, said, “Nyoka.” This was the Swahili word for “snake.” Freud climbed down from his tree and walked quickly toward where the call had sounded, with Hilali following close behind. When I caught up with Hilali, he was pointing to a tangled mass of leaves and vines on the forest floor. From years of experience, Mzee Hilali knew instantly that this particular chimp call meant they’d found a snake. Clues to the origins of language Chimpanzees are among human beings’ closest living relatives, and they share with us many unusual traits.

Neurosciences et apprentissage Interview Pierre Marie Lledo : Neurosciences et apprentissage Pierre Marie Lledo est Directeur de recherche au C.N.R.S, Chef d’unité « Perception et Mémoire » à l’Institut Pasteur, Directeur du laboratoire « Gènes, Synapses et Cognition » du C.N.R.S et Directeur d’Enseignement à l’Institut Pasteur. Sur le même thème 5 neuromythes invalidés par les neurosciences Steeve Masson explique dans cette vidéo qu’il existe beaucoup de fausses croyances sur le cerveau qui sont en fait des neuromythes. 27 mai 2015 Dans "Cognition et Communication" Joël de Rosnay : passons le relais aux jeunes générations ! Joël de Rosnay est docteur ès sciences, chimiste organicien, spécialiste des origines du vivant, écrivain, conseiller de la Présidente d'Universcience, Claudie Haigneré, Président exécutif de Biotics International. 10 juin 2014 Dans "Educavox" Partagez cet article, Choisissez votre Plateforme!

Tagxedo - Word Cloud with Styles Yanny or Laurel? It's your brain not your ears that decides As a speech scientist, I never thought I’d see so much excitement on social media about one tiny little word. The clip, which went viral after being posted on Reddit, is polarizing listeners who hear a computer voice say either “Laurel” or “Yanny.” @AlexWelke tweeted, “This is the kinda stuff that starts wars.” While I can’t prevent a war, I can explain some reasons why this sound file has created such a controversy. Kudos to University of Minnesota speech-language researcher and professor Ben Munson for his original analysis explaining how the acoustic file can lead listeners to one of two conclusions. The discrepancy in what people hear comes down to a few different possibilities, none of which sort it out for certain. The fact that, for the life of me, I can only hear “Laurel” is because of a phenomenon called categorical perception. This internet hullabaloo underscores the marvelous, effortless, constant work of the human brain.

[Infographie] 10 pays, 10 ambiances de bureau Où peut-on boire avec ses collègues ? Où peut-on être relax sur les horaires ? Où faut-il être humble ou au contraire vantard ? Les habitudes de bureau des salariés de 10 pays différents ont été résumées en une infographie par le spécialiste des fournitures de bureau Viking. Un condensé qui pourrait aiguiller ceux qui hésitent sur la destination de leur prochaine expatriation. Si vous êtes plutôt rigides, vous aimerez probablement la mode hollandaise ou allemande. Pour retrouver une ambiance un peu plus détente, il vaut mieux opter pour les pays latins. On ne vous en dit pas plus et on vous laisse découvrir d’autres habitudes, au-delà des frontières européennes.