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Objective-C is a general-purpose , high-level , object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk -style messaging to the C programming language. It is the main programming language used by Apple for the OS X and iOS operating systems and their respective APIs , Cocoa and Cocoa Touch . Originally developed in the early 1980s, it was selected as the main language used by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system, from which OS X and iOS are derived. [ 1 ] Generic Objective-C programs that do not use the Cocoa or Cocoa Touch libraries can also be compiled for any system supported by GCC or Clang . [ edit ] History Objective-C was created primarily by Brad Cox and Tom Love in the early 1980s at their company Stepstone .
Contents 2. FORTRAN FEATURES SUPPORTED 2.1 SUBROUTINE AND FUNCTION CALLS 2.1.1 Single value parameters 2.1.2 Array parameters 2.2 UNSUPPORTED OR UNTESTED FEATURES 3. IMPLEMENTING A FORTRAN INTERFACE IN C++ 3.1 LINKAGE CONVENTIONS 3.2 CALLING CONVENTIONS 3.3 PROTOTYPING A SUBROUTINE IN C++ 3.4 PROTOTYPING A FUNCTION IN C++ 3.5 PASSING PARAMETERS FROM C++ TO F77 AND BACK 3.5.1 Passing single-value parameters 3.5.2 Passing single-dimension array parameters 3.5.3 Passing multi-dimension array parameters 3.5.4 Passing single-value COMPLEX parameters 18.104.22.168 FORTRAN functions returning COMPLEX values 3.5.5 Passing single-value CHARACTER parameters 22.214.171.124 Solution strategy 126.96.36.199 single CHARACTER string example 188.8.131.52 Passing single-dimension CHARACTER array parameters 3.6 LINKING C++ AND FORTRAN 4.
Order of multi dimensional arrays in C/C++ is the opposite of FORTRAN. Native FORTRAN layout (collumn-major order): INTEGER A(2,3) Or INTEGER A(2,2,2) Native C layout (row-major order) is NOT equivalent to the FORTRAN layout: int a;
Calling Fortran routines from a C++ program in Unix In general it is possible to call routines written in Fortran from a C++ program. But this should be avoided as it could introduce troubles in porting and maintenance.
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One of the nice features of C++ is that you can give special meanings to operators, when they are used with user-defined classes. This is called operator overloading . You can implement C++ operator overloads by providing special member-functions on your classes that follow a particular naming convention. For example, to overload the + operator for your class, you would provide a member-function named operator+ on your class. The following set of operators is commonly overloaded for user-defined classes: