Hallucinogen Hallucinogens are a general group of pharmacological agents that can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. These classes of psychoactive drugs have in common that they can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness.
Classes of dissociatives Dissociative
Opioid An opioid is any psychoactive chemical that resembles morphine or other opiates in its pharmacological effects.
Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans. Salvinorin A
Ibotenic acid Ibotenic acid is a chemical compound that is naturally occurring in the mushrooms Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina, among others. Ibotenic acid is a powerful neurotoxin that is used as a "brain-lesioning agent" and has shown to be highly neurotoxic when injected directly into the brains of mice and rats. Psychopharmacology
Ketamine, one of the most common NMDA receptor antagonists. NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). NMDA receptor antagonist
Morphinan Morphinan is the base chemical structure of a large chemical class of psychoactive drugs, consisting of opioid analgesics, cough suppressants, and dissociative hallucinogens, among others.
Levomethorphan Levomethorphan is the l-stereoisomer of methorphan. The effects of the two isomers are quite different. Dextromethorphan is an antitussive at low doses and a dissociative at much higher doses, whereas levomethorphan is an opioid analgesic.
Dimemorfan Dimemorfan is an antitussive or cough suppressant which acts as a sigma receptor agonist. It is an analogue of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan, but lacks significant NMDA receptor antagonistic action and dissociative effects, thereby having reduced abuse potential and adverse effects in comparison. See also
Dextrorphan Dextrorphan (DXO) is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan chemical class which acts as an antitussive or cough suppressant and dissociative hallucinogen.
Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug.
2-MDP 2-MDP (U-23807A) is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which has been found to be an NMDA antagonist and produces similar effects to PCP in animals.
8A-PDHQ 8a-Phenyldecahydroquinoline (8A-PDHQ) is a high affinity NMDA antagonist developed by a team at Parke Davis in the 1950s. It is a structural analog of Phencyclidine with slightly lower binding affinity than the parent compound. (-)-8a-Phenyldecahydroquinoline has an in vivo potency comparable to that of (+)-MK-801. Jump up ^ US Patent 3035059Jump up ^ Chen C, Kozikowski AP, Wood PL, Reynolds IJ, Ball RG, Pang YP (1992). "Synthesis and biological activity of 8a-phenyldecahydroquinolines as probes of PCP's binding conformation.
Aptiganel (Cerestat; CNS-1102) is a drug which acts as a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist. It has neuroprotective effects and was researched for potential use in the treatment of stroke, but despite positive results in animal studies, human trials showed limited efficacy, as well as undesirable side effects such as sedation and hallucinations, and clinical development was ultimately not continued. Synthesis Aptiganel