Hallucinogens are a general group of pharmacological agents that can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics , dissociatives , and deliriants . These classes of psychoactive drugs have in common that they can cause subjective changes in perception , thought , emotion and consciousness .
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen , which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self.
An opioid is a psychoactive chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors , which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract .
Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum , a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.
Ibotenic acid is a chemical compound that is naturally occurring in the mushrooms Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina , among others. Ibotenic acid is a powerful neurotoxin that is used as a "brain- lesioning agent" [ 1 ] [ 2 ] and has shown to be highly neurotoxic when injected directly into the brains of mice and rats. [ 3 ] [ edit ] Psychopharmacology
Ketamine , one of the most common NMDA receptor antagonists. NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize , or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor ( NMDAR ).
Dextrorphan ( DXO ) is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan chemical class which acts as an antitussive or cough suppressant and dissociative hallucinogen .
Dextromethorphan ( DXM or DM ) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug .
Aptiganel ( Cerestat ; CNS-1102 ) is a drug which acts as a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist . [ 1 ] It has neuroprotective effects and was researched for potential use in the treatment of stroke , [ 2 ] but despite positive results in animal studies, [ 3 ] human trials showed limited efficacy, [ 4 ] as well as undesirable side effects such as sedation and hallucinations , [ 5 ] [ 6 ] and clinical development was ultimately not continued. [ 7 ] [ edit ] Synthesis
Etoxadrol (CL-1848C) is a dissociative anaesthetic drug that has been found to be an NMDA antagonist and produce similar effects to PCP in animals. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Etoxadrol, along with another related drug dexoxadrol , were developed as analgesics for use in humans, but development was discontinued in the late '70s after patients reported side effects such as nightmares and hallucinations . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ edit ] Chemical Structure
Arylcyclohexylamines , also known as arylcyclohexamines or arylcyclohexanamines , are a chemical class of pharmaceutical , designer , and experimental drugs .
4-Methoxyphencyclidine ( methoxydine , 4-MeO-PCP ) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects.
Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist . [ 1 ] It is related chemically and pharmacologically to other anesthetics in this family such as ketamine and phencyclidine . Tiletamine hydrochloride exists as odourless white crystals.
Tenocyclidine ( TCP ) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to phencyclidine (PCP) but is considerably more potent.
Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine ), commonly initialized as PCP and known colloquially as angel dust , KJ (kristal joint), illy , or wet , is a recreational dissociative drug .