Hallucinogen

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Hallucinogen. Hallucinogens are a general group of pharmacological agents that can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants.

Hallucinogen

These classes of psychoactive drugs have in common that they can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness. Unlike other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids, these drugs do not merely amplify familiar states of mind, but rather induce experiences that are qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. These experiences are often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, meditation, dreams, or insanity. L. E. In proportion to other effects, changes in thought, perception, and mood should predominate;intellectual or memory impairment should be minimal;stupor, narcosis, or excessive stimulation should not be an integral effect;autonomic nervous system side effects should be minimal; andaddictive craving should be absent.

Dissociative. Opioid. An opioid is any chemical that resembles morphine or other opiates in its pharmacological effects.

Opioid

Opioids work by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate the beneficial effects as well as the psychoactive and the side effects of opioids. Although the term opiate is often used as a synonym for opioid, the term opiate is properly limited to the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), while opioid refers to both opiates and synthetic substances, as well as to opioid peptides. Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs; the therapeutic use of the opium poppy predates recorded history. The analgesic (painkiller) effects of opioids are due to decreased perception of pain, decreased reaction to pain as well as increased pain tolerance. Salvinorin A. Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.

Salvinorin A

Salvinorin A is considered a dissociative exhibiting atypically psychedelic effects. Salvinorin A can produce psychoactive experiences in humans with a typical duration of action being several minutes to an hour or so, depending on the method of ingestion.[2] History[edit] Salvinorin A was first described and named in 1982 by Alfredo Ortega and colleagues in Mexico.

They used a combination of spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography to determine the chemical structure of the compound, which was shown to have a bicyclic diterpene structure.[3] Around the same time, Leander Julián Valdés III independently isolated the molecule as part of his PhD research, published in 1983.[4] Valdés named the chemical divinorum, and also isolated an analog that he named divinorum B. Ibotenic acid. Ibotenic acid is a chemical compound that is naturally occurring in the mushrooms Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina, among others.

Ibotenic acid

NMDA receptor antagonist. Ketamine, one of the most common NMDA receptor antagonists.

NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthetics for animals and for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. Recent research conducted on primates suggests that, while very consistent and long-term ketamine use may be neurotoxic, acute use is not.[1][2]

Morphinan. Morphinan is the base chemical structure of a large chemical class of psychoactive drugs, consisting of opiate analgesics, cough suppressants, and dissociative hallucinogens, among others.

Morphinan

Morphinan has the phenanthrene backbone. Chemical derivatives[edit] Immediate derivatives of morphinan include: More distant of derivatives include: Levomethorphan. Levomethorphan is the l-stereoisomer of methorphan.

Levomethorphan

The effects of the two isomers are quite different. Dextromethorphan is an antitussive at low doses and a dissociative at much higher doses, whereas levomethorphan is an opioid analgesic. Dimemorfan. Dimemorfan is an antitussive or cough suppressant which acts as a sigma receptor agonist.[1][2] It is an analogue of dextromethorphan and dextrorphan, but lacks significant NMDA receptor antagonistic action and dissociative effects, thereby having reduced abuse potential and adverse effects in comparison.[3] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Wang, H.

Dimemorfan

H.; Chien, J. Dextrorphan. Dextrorphan (DXO) is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan chemical class which acts as an antitussive or cough suppressant and dissociative hallucinogen.

Dextrorphan

It is the dextro-stereoisomer of racemorphan, the levo-half being levorphanol. Dextrorphan is produced by O-demethylation of dextromethorphan by CYP2D6. Dextrorphan is an NMDA antagonist and contributes to the psychoactive effects of dextromethorphan.[1] Pharmacology[edit] Methorphan. Dextrorphan. Dextromethorphan. Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug.

Dextromethorphan

It is one of the active ingredients in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, including generic labels and store brands, Benylin DM, Mucinex DM, Robitussin, NyQuil, Dimetapp, Vicks, Coricidin, Delsym, TheraFlu, and others. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief to psychological applications. It is sold in syrup, tablet, spray, and lozenge forms.

In its pure form, dextromethorphan occurs as a white powder.[3] DXM is also used recreationally. 2-MDP. 2-MDP (U-23807A) is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which has been found to be an NMDA antagonist and produces similar effects to PCP in animals. The levo or (-) isomer is the active form of the drug.[1][2] It also has stimulant effects, having only around one third the potency of amphetamine by weight, but with a long duration of action, lasting more than 24 hours from a single oral dose.[3] Jump up ^ Tang AH, Cangelosi AA, Code RA, Franklin SR.

8A-PDHQ. 8a-Phenyldecahydroquinoline (8A-PDHQ) is a high affinity NMDA antagonist developed by a team at Parke Davis in the 1950s.[1] It is a structural analog of Phencyclidine with slightly lower binding affinity than the parent compound. (-)-8a-Phenyldecahydroquinoline has an in vivo potency comparable to that of (+)-MK-801.[2][3] Jump up ^ US Patent 3035059Jump up ^ Chen C, Kozikowski AP, Wood PL, Reynolds IJ, Ball RG, Pang YP (1992). "Synthesis and biological activity of 8a-phenyldecahydroquinolines as probes of PCP's binding conformation. A new PCP-like compound with increased in vivo potency". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 35 (9): 1634–8. doi:10.1021/jm00087a020. Aptiganel. Aptiganel (Cerestat; CNS-1102) is a drug which acts as a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist.[1] It has neuroprotective effects and was researched for potential use in the treatment of stroke,[2] but despite positive results in animal studies,[3] human trials showed limited efficacy,[4] as well as undesirable side effects such as sedation and hallucinations,[5][6] and clinical development was ultimately not continued.[7] Synthesis[edit] See also[edit] Ditolylguanidine References[edit]

Etoxadrol. Etoxadrol (CL-1848C) is a dissociative anaesthetic drug that has been found to be an NMDA antagonist and produce similar effects to PCP in animals.[1][2] Etoxadrol, along with another related drug dexoxadrol, were developed as analgesics for use in humans, but development was discontinued in the late '70s after patients reported side effects such as nightmares and hallucinations.[3][4][5] Chemical structure[edit] Phenicyclidine (PCP), tenocyclidine (TCP), ketamine, etoxadrol and dexoxadrol all contain phenyl and amino groups, which bind to the PCP site on the NMDA receptor. Phenicyclidine (PCP), tenocyclidine (TCP), etoxadrol and its precursor, dexoxadrol have related chemical structures.[6] These drugs all act similarly on the nervous system, acting as dissociative hallucinogens (meaning that they interfere with normal sensory signals, replacing them with hallucinations of any sensory modality) with anesthetic and analgesic properties.

Pharmacodynamics[edit] Pharmacokinetics[edit] Arylcyclohexylamine. 4-MeO-PCP. Tiletamine. Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic and pharmacologically classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[1] It is related chemically and pharmacologically to other anesthetics in this family such as ketamine and phencyclidine. Tiletamine hydrochloride exists as odourless white crystals. Tenocyclidine. Tenocyclidine (TCP) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. It is similar in effects to phencyclidine (PCP) but is considerably more potent. TCP has slightly different binding properties to PCP, with more affinity for the NMDA receptors,[1] but less affinity for the sigma receptors.[2] Because of its high affinity for the PCP site of the NMDA receptor complex, the 3H radiolabelled form of TCP is widely used in research into NMDA receptors.

TCP acts primarily as an NMDA receptor antagonist which blocks the activity of the NMDA receptor, however its increased stimulant effects compared to PCP suggests it also has relatively greater activity as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI). Rolicyclidine. Rolicyclidine (PCPy) is a dissociative anesthetic drug with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Phencyclidine. Neramexane. Neramexane is a drug related to memantine,[1] which acts as an NMDA antagonist[2] and has neuroprotective effects.[3] It is being developed for various possible applications, including treatment of tinnitus,[4][5] Alzheimer's disease,[6] drug addiction[7] and as an analgesic.[8] Animal studies have also suggested antidepressant[9] and nootropic[10] actions, so there are a wide range of potential applications this drug may be used for.

Methoxetamine. Ketamine. Gacyclidine. Eticyclidine. Dieticyclidine. Esketamine. Nitrous oxide. Dexoxadrol. Dizocilpine. Adamantane. Rimantadine. Memantine. Amantadine. Dimemorfan. Noscapine. Psychedelic drug. Ergoline. Lysergic acid diethylamide. Ibogaine. Tryptamine. Dipropyltryptamine. Psilocin. O-Acetylpsilocin. Bufotenin. Alpha-Methyltryptamine. 5-MeO-DMT. Psilocybin. Diisopropyltryptamine. 5-MeO-AMT. Dimethyltryptamine.

Phenethylamine. 2C-B-FLY. Mescaline. 2C-D. 2C-C. 2C-T-2. 2C-T-7. 2C-T-4. 2C-B. 2C-E. 2C-T-21. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine. 2C-I. 2C-T-4. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine. Trimethoxyamphetamine. Para-Methoxymethamphetamine. Para-Methoxyamphetamine. Deliriant. Tropane alkaloid. Scopolamine. Hyoscyamine. Atropine. Glycolic acid. Benactyzine. Dicycloverine. N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate. N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate. 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate. Ditran. EA-3167. Dimenhydrinate. Diphenhydramine. Doxylamine.