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Psilocybin

Psilocybin
Psilocybin[nb 1] (/ˌsɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ SIL-ə-SY-bin) is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms. The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe, such as P. azurescens, P. semilanceata, and P. cyanescens, but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera. As a prodrug, psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin, which has mind-altering effects similar (in some aspects) to those of LSD, mescaline, and DMT. In general, the effects include euphoria, visual and mental hallucinations, changes in perception, a distorted sense of time, and spiritual experiences, and can include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks. History[edit] Early[edit] Modern[edit] Albert Hofmann (shown here in 1993) purified psilocybin and psilocin from Psilocybe mexicana in the late 1950s. Occurrence[edit]

Aporphine Aporphine is one of a class of quinoline alkaloids. Many different relatives of this compound have been purified from plants.[1] One commonly used aporphine derivative is apomorphine, although it does not occur naturally. Aporphine is a 5-HT1a partial agonist with a ki of 80nM and a 5-HT7 antagonist with a ki of 88nM.[2] Aporphine is a Dopamine D1 antagonist with a ki of 717nM[3] and a dopamine D2 antagonist with a ki of 527nM.[4] Aporphine and its related alkaloids bulbocapnine, boldine, glaucine and corytuberine are antipsychotic, exert naloxone-reversible antinociceptive activity and with the exception of corytuberine are anticonvulsant.[5] Some derivatives of aporphine such as S(+)-N-propylnorapomorphine have potential as low side effect profile antipsychotics. S(+)-N-propylnorapomorphine is highly selective for meso-limbic dopaminergic tracts and function as efficacious partial agonists, with no elevation in prolactin.[6] See also[edit] References[edit]

Psilocybin mushroom Psilocybin mushrooms, also known as psychedelic mushrooms, are mushrooms that contain the psychedelic drugs psilocybin and psilocin. Common colloquial terms include magic mushrooms and shrooms.[1] Biological genera containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia, Galerina, Gymnopilus, Inocybe, Mycena, Panaeolus, Pholiotina, Pluteus, and Psilocybe. About 40 species are found in the genus Psilocybe. Psilocybe cubensis is the most common psilocybin mushroom in subtropical areas and the black market. Psilocybin mushrooms have likely been used since prehistoric times and may have been depicted in rock art. History[edit] Early[edit] Archaeological evidence indicates the use of psilocybin-containing mushrooms in ancient times. Hallucinogenic species of the psilocybe genus have a history of use among the native peoples of Mesoamerica for religious communion, divination, and healing, from pre-Columbian times to the present day. Modern[edit] Occurrence[edit] Effects[edit] Sensory[edit]

Cannabinoid Synthetic cannabinoids encompass a variety of distinct chemical classes: the classical cannabinoids structurally related to THC, the nonclassical cannabinoids (cannabimimetics) including the aminoalkylindoles, 1,5-diarylpyrazoles, quinolines, and arylsulphonamides, as well as eicosanoids related to the endocannabinoids.[2] Cannabinoid receptors[edit] Cannabinoid receptor type 1[edit] CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain, more specifically in the basal ganglia and in the limbic system, including the hippocampus.[1] They are also found in the cerebellum and in both male and female reproductive systems. Cannabinoid receptor type 2[edit] CB2 receptors are predominantly found in the immune system, or immune-derived cells[8] with the greatest density in the spleen. Phytocannabinoids[edit] Cannabis-derived cannabinoids[edit] The classical cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular trichomes. Types[edit] Tetrahydrocannabinol[edit] Length[edit]

Lysergic acid diethylamide Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide (INN) and colloquially as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed- and open-eye visuals, synesthesia, an altered sense of time and spiritual experiences, as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture. It is used mainly as an entheogen, recreational drug, and as an agent in psychedelic therapy. LSD is non-addictive, is not known to cause brain damage, and has extremely low toxicity relative to dose.[3] However, acute adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions are possible.[4] LSD was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 from ergotamine, a chemical derived by Arthur Stoll from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye. Effects Physical LSD can cause pupil dilation, reduced or increased appetite, and wakefulness. Psychological Sensory Potential uses

An overview on how to find Psilocybin Mushrooms. - Mushroom Hunting and Identification An overview on how to find Psilocybin MushroomsLast updated 4/17/2010 The reason for writing this guide is that a large percentage of new mushroom hunters go about the process completely backwards. Tromping around, picking a random mushroom, and then asking if it is a psychedelic type is a great waste of time for both the hunter and the friendly folks who frequent these boards trying to help ID them. Randomly picking a mushroom and finding a psychedelic one with no prior knowledge about it is right up there with winning the lottery. Step 1: Know your location. What state are you in? Step 2: Know your mushroom. Now that you’ve got a list of mushrooms that grow in your area, it’s time to put in a little book learning and effort. Important things to note while reading their descriptions:Where do they grow? Armed with all of your new found knowledge, pick a place that you think will yield some likely results and go hunting!. Step 4: Know your camera. Step 6: Know your posting skills.

Tryptamine Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in plants, fungi, and animals. It contains an indole ring structure, and is structurally similar to the amino acid tryptophan, from which it derives its name. Tryptamine is found in trace amounts in the brains of mammals and is believed to play a role as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter.[2] The tryptamine chemical structure is the backbone for a group of compounds termed collectively tryptamines. The concentration of tryptamine in rat brains is about 3.5 pmol/g.[3] Plants containing tryptamine[edit] Many plants contain small amounts of tryptamine, for example, as a possible intermediate in one biosynthetic pathway to the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid.[4] Higher concentrations can be found in many Acacia species. Role in vertebrates[edit] Tryptamine acts as a serotonin releasing agent[5] and a serotonergic activity enhancer.[6] It is metabolised by MAO-A and MAO-B.[7] Tryptamine derivatives[edit] General structure of substituted tryptamines

Mushroom Info Our complete collection of psychedelic mushrooms information. Documents about experiencing shrooms safely and a great introduction to the Shroomery. An Introduction A document to welcome newcomers to the Shroomery and let them in on what's going on. Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 4.50 A collection of frequently asked questions for those wanting to learn about psilocybe mushrooms. Psilocin Psilocin (also known as 4-OH-DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin), is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance. It is present in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin. Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[2] The mind-altering effects of psilocin are highly variable and subjective and resemble those of LSD and DMT. Chemistry[edit] Psilocin and its phosphorylated cousin, psilocybin, were first isolated and named in 1958 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann. Hofmann obtained the chemicals from laboratory-grown specimens of the entheogenic mushroom Psilocybe mexicana. Psilocin is relatively unstable in solution due to its phenolic hydroxy (-OH) group. Structural analogs[edit] Pharmacology[edit] Psilocin is the pharmacologically active agent in the body after ingestion of psilocybin or some species of psychedelic mushrooms. Psilocin's half-life ranges from 1 to 3 hours.[1]

Melatonin Melatonin The hormone can be used as a sleep aid and in the treatment of sleep disorders. It can be taken orally as capsules, tablets, or liquid. It is also available in a form to be used sublingually, and there are transdermal patches. There have been few clinical trials, particularly long-term ones, in the use of melatonin in humans. Discovery[edit] Biosynthesis[edit] Melatonin biosynthesis involves four enzymatic steps from the essential dietary amino acid tryptophan, which follows a serotonin pathway. In bacteria, protists, fungi, and plants melatonin is synthesized indirectly with tryptophan as an intermediate product of the shikimic acid pathway. Regulation[edit] In vertebrates, melatonin secretion is regulated by norepinephrine. It is principally blue light, around 460 to 480 nm, that suppresses melatonin,[24] proportional to the light intensity and length of exposure. Animals[edit] Plants[edit] Functions[edit] Circadian rhythm[edit] Antioxidant[edit] Immune system[edit] Medical uses[edit]

Psilocybin mushrooms in my area. Throughout the world the species Panaeolus cinctulus (= P. subbalteatus) and several active species of Gymnopilus grow. Rather than create entries for countries, states and provinces which would then have nothing else listed, it is probably a good assumption that these mushrooms grow in those places not listed. If they are not listed for your area, mentally add it. When researching your mushrooms be aware that many have more than one name. It may be that two names that were thought to be different were shown to describe the same fungus, or that it was moved to a new genus, or a whole host of reasons. For example the mushroom Panaeolus cyanescens was once placed in the genus Copelandia and you will therefore sometimes see it written as Coplandia cyanescens. Amanita muscaria can be found in all 50 states and in most countries.Though Psychoactive, it is not a psilocybin mushroom so it does not appear in this list. 'Sp.' ArkansasGymnopilus sp.Panaeolus cinctulusPsilocybe cubensis Africa Asia

Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Uses[edit] Medical[edit] MPH is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system.[5] It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.[6] The short-term benefits and cost effectiveness of methylphenidate are well established, although long-term effects are unknown.[7][8] The long term effects of methylphenidate on the developing brain are unknown. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit] Methylphenidate is approved by the U.S. Some research suggests that methylphenidate treatment need not be indefinite. Other[edit]

Online Books : "TIHKAL" - #18 4-HO-DMT SYNTHESIS : To a solution of 0.50 g 4-acetoxyindole (see preparation in the recipe for 4-HO-DET) in 4 mL Et2O, that was stirred and cooled with an external ice bath, there was added, dropwise, a solution of 0.5 mL oxalyl chloride in 3 mL anhydrous Et2O. Stirring was continued for 0.5 h and the intermediate indoleglyoxylchloride separated as a yellow crystalline solid but it was not isolated. There was then added, dropwise, a 40% solution of dimethylamine in Et2O until the pH came to 8-9. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 100 mL CHCl3, and the organic phase was washed with 30 mL of 5% NaHSO4 solution, with 30 mL of saturated NaHCO3, and finally with 30 mL of saturated brine. After drying with anhydrous MgSO4, the solvent was removed under vacuum. A suspension of 0.38 g LAH in 10 mL anhydrous THF was held in an inert atmosphere and vigorously stirred. Most of the early syntheses of psilocin and psilocybin employ the O-benzyl ether as a protecting group. Another aside.

Tetrahydrocannabinol Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or more precisely its main isomer (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( (6aR,10aR)-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), is the principal psychoactive constituent (or cannabinoid) of the cannabis plant. First isolated in 1964, in its pure form, by Israeli scientists Raphael Mechoulam and Yechiel Gaoni at the Weizmann Institute of Science,[8][9][10] it is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. A pharmaceutical formulation of (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, known by its INN dronabinol, is available by prescription in the U.S. and Canada under the brand name Marinol. Like most pharmacologically-active secondary metabolites of plants, THC in cannabis is assumed to be involved in self-defense, perhaps against herbivores.[11] THC also possesses high UV-B (280–315 nm) absorption properties, which, it has been speculated, could protect the plant from harmful UV radiation exposure.[12][13][14] Pharmacology[edit] Interactions[edit] [edit]

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