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Psilocybin[nb 1] (/ˌsɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ SIL-ə-SY-bin) is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms. The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe, such as P. azurescens, P. semilanceata, and P. cyanescens, but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera. As a prodrug, psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin, which has mind-altering effects similar (in some aspects) to those of LSD, mescaline, and DMT. In general, the effects include euphoria, visual and mental hallucinations, changes in perception, a distorted sense of time, and spiritual experiences, and can include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks. History[edit] Early[edit] Modern[edit] Albert Hofmann (shown here in 1993) purified psilocybin and psilocin from Psilocybe mexicana in the late 1950s. Occurrence[edit]

Related:  Psychoactive Alkaloidshistory of PsychopharmacologyHallucinogenPsychopharmacologyPsicodelicos

5-MeO-DMT 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a powerful psychedelic tryptamine. It is found in a wide variety of plant and psychoactive toad species and, like its close relatives DMT and bufotenin (5-HO-DMT), it has been used as an entheogen by South American shamans for thousands of years.[citation needed] Chemistry[edit] History[edit] Traditionally 5-MeO-DMT has been used in psychedelic snuff made from virola bark resin, and may be a trace constituent of ayahuasca when plants such as Diplopterys cabrerana are used as an admixture. 5-MeO-DMT is also found in the venom of the Colorado River toad (Bufo alvarius), although there is no direct evidence this was used as a hallucinogen until recent times.

Mescaline Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects similar to those of LSD and psilocybin. It shares strong structural similarities with the catecholamine dopamine. It occurs naturally in the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii),[1] the San Pedro cactus[2] (Echinopsis pachanoi) and in the Peruvian torch (Echinopsis peruviana), and as well in a number of other members of the Cactaceae plant family. It is also found in small amounts in certain members of the Fabaceae (bean) family, including Acacia berlandieri.[3]

Dissociative Classes of dissociatives[edit] NMDA receptor antagonists[edit] κ-opioid receptor agonists[edit] Effects[edit] The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[9][10][11] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[9] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment Dimethyltryptamine History[edit] Another historical milestone is the discovery of DMT in plants frequently used by Amazonian natives as additive to the vine Banisteriopsis caapi to make ayahuasca decoctions. Biosynthesis[edit] Biosynthetic pathway for N,N-dimethyltryptamine This transmethylation mechanism has been repeatedly and consistently proven by radiolabeling of SAM methyl group with carbon-14 (14C-CH3)SAM).[22][20][24][25][26]

Top 10 Drogas y sus Efectos Crime Drug abuse is a very common problem in most countries so it seemed like a good topic for a list. This is a list of ten of the most abused drugs and the effects they have on people. Heroin is an opiate processed directly from the extracts of the opium poppy. It was originally created to help cure people of addiction to morphine. Upon crossing the blood-brain barrier, which occurs soon after introduction of the drug into the bloodstream, heroin is converted into morphine, which mimics the action of endorphins, creating a sense of well-being; the characteristic euphoria has been described as an “orgasm” centered in the gut.

N-Methyltryptamine N-Methyltryptamine (NMT), or methyltryptamine, is a member of the tryptamine chemical class. It is an alkaloid, probably derived from L-tryptophan, that has been found in the bark, shoots and leaves of several plant species, including Virola, Acacia, Mimosa and Desmanthus often together with the related compounds N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT).[1] It is also synthesized in the human body as a metabolic endproduct of the amino acid L-tryptophan.[2] It was found to be a natural trace component in human urine.[3] NMT has been shown to act as an agonist of the TAAR1, similarly to its relatives tryptamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.[7] See also[edit] N-Ethyltryptamine (NET)N,N,-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)Acacia confusa (a natural source of NMT, with other tryptamines, 1.63%. Buchanan et al. 2007)Acacia obtusifolia (NMT up to 2/3 alkaloid content)Acacia simplicifolia (synon.

Ethnomycology Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology. Although in theory the term includes fungi used for such purposes as tinder, medicine (medicinal mushrooms) and food (including yeast), it is often used in the context of the study of psychoactive mushrooms such as psilocybin mushrooms, the Amanita muscaria mushroom, and the ergot fungus. American banker Robert Gordon Wasson pioneered interest in this field of study in the late 1950s, when he and his wife became the first Westerners on record allowed to participate in a mushroom velada, held by the Mazatec curandera María Sabina.

NMDA receptor antagonist Ketamine, one of the most common NMDA receptor antagonists. NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthetics for animals and for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents, although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans. Recent research conducted on primates suggests that, while very consistent and long-term ketamine use may be neurotoxic, acute use is not.[1][2] Several synthetic opioids function additionally as NMDAR-antagonists, such as pethidine, methadone, dextropropoxyphene, tramadol and ketobemidone.

The Ibogaine Story "I have seen the best minds of my genertion, starving, hysterical, naked, Dragging themselves through negro streets at dawn, looking for an angry fix..." --Allen Ginsberg, the opening lines, HOWL; 1954 "What we're looking for is something wecan spray over theSoviet trenches, and they'll march out whistling 'Yankee Doodle Dandy'." -- Ascribed to a CIA advisor, Defense Department, Libros en pantalla: "La Guía Esencial psicodélico" - LSD INTENSITY: 3 to 7 for most experiences. MATERIAL: LSD is a synthetic compound. It is derived from Iysergic acid which is found in Hawaiian Woodrose and Morning Glory seeds, or Ergot fungus, which can grow on rye, wheat, and other grams. Lysergic acid is also psychoactive, although not nearly as potent as LSD, and has been consumed for millennia in the form of the above mentioned plant sources.

Psilocin Psilocin (also known as 4-OH-DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin), is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance. It is present in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin. Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[2] The mind-altering effects of psilocin are highly variable and subjective and resemble those of LSD and DMT. Hallucinogen A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perception anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants. By contrast, Stimulants, Opioids, and other psychoactive drugs are not explicitly hallucinogens because a 'hallucination' is visual terminology. The psychoactivity of opioids is devoid of visual anomalies, though the 'numbing' can be considered dissociation from pain. Hallucinations are not an uncommon symptom of amphetamine psychosis, but as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While stimulants do not induce hallucinations without abuse, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium. L.

Arylcyclohexylamine Arylcyclohexylamines, also known as arylcyclohexamines or arylcyclohexanamines, are a chemical class of pharmaceutical, designer, and experimental drugs. History[edit] The arylcyclohexylamines were originally developed as anesthetics in the 1960s with ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) being the first members of the class to be synthesized.[1] The 1970s saw the debut of these compounds, especially PCP and its analogues, as illicitly used recreational drugs due to their dissociative hallucinogenic and euphoriant effects. Since, the class has been expanded by scientific research into stimulant, analgesic, and neuroprotective agents, and also by clandestine chemists in search of novel recreational drugs. Chemistry[edit]