PART II: The origins of San Francisco Bay San Francisco Bay's History Like most estuaries, San Francisco Bay is a very young feature, geologically speaking. Twenty thousand years ago there was no bay. At that time the world was in the grip of the last ice age, and much of the planet's water was frozen into glaciers that covered a large part of the northern continents. With less water to fill the oceans, sea level was nearly 150 meters (over 400 feet) lower and the Pacific coastline was 30 km (20 miles) west of where it lies today. Imagine having to travel all the way to the Farallon Islands to go walking on the beach or surfing in the ocean!
San Francisco Estuary Institute | Region-wide Science for Ecosystem Management
From FoundSF Historical Essay by Joel Pomerantz Surrounded by the salty ocean, San Franciscans take as a given the need for fresh water drawn from mountains on the far side of the state. Hetch Hetchy reservoir, located in Yosemite National Park on the Tuolumne River, is our main source. The Tuolumne, combined with creeks in counties nearer San Francisco, supply 95% of the water we use for our residences, industries, and irrigation. San Francisco's Clean Little Secret - FoundSF
Presenter: Josh Byrne, 27/08/2004 When establishing new gardens during the cooler winter months it is important to prepare for the hot summer ahead so that the most efficient use of water is made for the maximum benefit to the garden. Drip irrigation is a proven method of providing uniform watering at ground level where the plants need it most, and it is extremely easy to install. Gardening Australia - Fact Sheet: Permaculture #6 - Drip Irrigation
Oasis Design: Grey Water Books, Ecological Design Information & Consulting
Home page | Greywater Action
Simple Graywater Systems For additional information, see our other web page on graywater: -Water Reuse Graywater systems designed for homes with conventional plumbing are well-covered in the references noted at the bottom of this page, so here I'll just describe a couple systems I've designed that aren't featured there. Casa Juliana Kitchen Graywater System Wastewater from the kitchen sink is often problematic to use because it is relatively high in organic solids, oils, grease and soap which over time tend to seal up soil pores, preventing water from infiltrating the soil.
This page describes the graywater/blackwater system we've been using for the past 15 years. This is a companion page to our Water Use webpage. The system is very basic. All wastewater, except that from the shower and laundry, is collected in a 5 gallon bucket and then dumped on a daily basis into mulch basins around trees and shrubs. This is the simplest, most effective system we have found for effectively treating and reusing our wastewater. By emptying wastewater into mulch filled basins where oxygen is plentiful and microbial activity high, treatment levels for the wastewater are also high. Water Reuse
Radical Water Conservation Methods Water flows from the water source, which in our case is a windmill, into the supply tank. A float valve automatically shuts off the water when the tank is full. A hinged lid prevents dust and light from entering the tank, keeping the water clean and algae free. The lid is counter-balanced so it stays open as we are dipping out water.
Composting toilets are simple, low-tech, waterless toilets. They are designed to provide favorable habitat for biological agents of decomposition such as bacteria, mold and fungi which break down feces and urine into compost. This miraculously transformative process encourages us to move beyond the concept of mere "waste disposal". It opens an opportunity to use our own compost to grow food for ourselves and thus to close the nutrient cycle. Composting Toilets
Covering the Hudson to the Catskills!
Parks make way for portable potties Doral Chenoweth III Rick Thomas, of Clintonville, walks his children, Katherine, 1, and Nicholas Thomas, 3, past a shuttered bathroom at Clinton-Como Park in Columbus. The city has closed many permanent park bathrooms in favor of portable loos. The well-built stone structure in the Clinton-Como Park playground sure looks like a bathroom.
Humanure Handbook: Contents A Guide to Composting Human Manure Second Edition Front Cover - Back Cover
This device creates condensation and directs the water to storage below which is then slowly delivered to the roots of the baby tree. After 1 to 2 years the box can be re-used and moved to another location to start another tree! Other advantages are the ability to grow the tree from seed directly on top of the soil or surface you want to plant on, like rocks! This really opens up the possibilities to reforest our deserts, even the areas with eroded topsoil. The trees roots will find their ways through the cracks into the earth and begin the process of building new soil! Waterboxx
Joao Diego Schimansky, a student at Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana in Brazil, is one of eight finalists in the Electrolux Design Lab 2007 annual global competition. Fog Shower
100 Ways To Conserve | Water – Use It Wisely
Roofwater Harvesting Work at OAEC | OAEC's WATER Institute In the North Coast region of California (including all of Sonoma County) the majority of watersheds are listed as “impaired” by the US Environmental Protection Agency, primarily due to sedimentation, temperature and water quantity. Dutch Bill Creek is one of only two creeks in the entire Russian River Basin known to host a wild population of Coho salmon, yet to function as a natural production stream, and to ensure survival of Coho and Steelhead, it must maintain adequate in-stream flows. As is typical in a Mediterranean climate like ours, the rainfall season in the North Coast region is shorter than the dry season, and low stream-flows in the dry months of summer and fall coincide with the months of highest human demand for agricultural, residential and commercial uses.
An Improvised PVC Bulkhead Fitting for Liquid Storage Tanks RuggedCompatible with and Inert to Most ChemicalsImpervious to WeatherMade from Common HardwareVery Inexpensive A "bulkhead fitting" is an unusual item of plumbing designed to pass a connection through the sealed wall of a vessel. An Improvised PVC Bulkhead Fitting for Liquid Storage Tanks
Rainwater HOG » modular water storage
PHOTOS: Fog Catchers Harvest Air's Water in Arid Places
This innovative technology is based on the fact that water can be collected from fogs under favorable climatic conditions. Fogs are defined as a mass of water vapor condensed into small water droplets at, or just above, the Earth's surface. The small water droplets present in the fog precipitate when they come in contact with objects. The frequent fogs that occur in the arid coastal areas of Peru and Chile are traditionally known as camanchacas. These fogs have the potential to provide an alternative source of freshwater in this otherwise dry region if harvested through the use of simple and low-cost collection systems known as fog collectors. Present research suggests that fog collectors work best in coastal areas where the water can be harvested as the fog moves inland driven by the wind. 1.3 Fog harvesting
Rain Barrel Guide: How to use rain barrels to harvest rainwater at home
Wonderland, Inc. | Specialists in Rainwater Catchment Systems
1.3 Fog harvesting
A green roof in the middle of dense urbanization can slow down and reduce rainfall runoff from the roof in Arlington County, Virgina. (Photo courtesy of Ansu John) Green landscaping within impervious surfaces, such as parking lots, can help reduce runoff. On this Page LID is an approach to land development (or re-development) that works with nature to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible. LID employs principles such as preserving and recreating natural landscape features, minimizing effective imperviousness to create functional and appealing site drainage that treat stormwater as a resource rather than a waste product. Low Impact Development (LID) | Polluted Runoff (Nonpoint Source Pollution)
National NEMO Network
San Francisco Sewers Blog
Water Resources Center Archive has moved to UC Riverside
San Francisco Historical Topo
Center for Watershed Protection - Welcome
Water cycle basics
Water footprint and virtual water
Planet Water - By Brock Dolman | OAEC's WATER Institute
5 Really Weird Things About Water
The water cycle: A Managing Wholes animation
Anomalous properties of water
Water Facts | OAEC's WATER Institute
How much water is there on Earth?"
Dan Barber: How I fell in love with a fish