In quantum mechanics , the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p , can be known simultaneously. For instance, the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa. [ 1 ] The original heuristic argument that such a limit should exist was given by Werner Heisenberg in 1927, after whom it is sometimes named the Heisenberg principle . A more formal inequality relating the standard deviation of position σ x and the standard deviation of momentum σ p was derived by Earle Hesse Kennard [ 2 ] later that year (and independently by Hermann Weyl [ 3 ] in 1928), where ħ is the reduced Planck constant .
Consciousness is a loosely defined concept that addresses the human awareness of both internal and external stimuli. This can refer to spiritual recognition, psychological understanding, medically altered states, or more modern-day concepts of life purpose, satisfaction, and self-actualization . Level of consciousness (Esotericism)
Neural correlates of consciousness Figure 1: The Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) are the minimal set of neural events and structures – here synchronized action potentials in neocortical pyramidal neurons – sufficient for a specific conscious percept or a conscious (explicit) memory . From Koch (2004). The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) can be defined as the minimal neuronal mechanisms jointly sufficient for any one specific conscious percept (Crick & Koch 1990).
Our Conscious Mind Could Be An Electromagnetic Field Are our thoughts made of the distributed kind of electromagnetic field that permeates space and carries the broadcast signal to the TV or radio. Professor Johnjoe McFadden from the School of Biomedical and Life Sciences at the University of Surrey in the UK believes our conscious mind could be an electromagnetic field. “The theory solves many previously intractable problems of consciousness and could have profound implications for our concepts of mind, free will, spirituality, the design of artificial intelligence, and even life and death,” he said. Most people consider "mind" to be all the conscious things that we are aware of. But much, if not most, mental activity goes on without awareness. Actions such as walking, changing gear in your car or peddling a bicycle can become as automatic as breathing.
Neural correlates of consciousness
Measurement in quantum mechanics The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement . The issue of measurement lies at the heart of the problem of the interpretation of quantum mechanics , for which there is currently no consensus. [ edit ] Measurement from a practical point of view Measurement is viewed in different ways in the many interpretations of quantum mechanics ; however, despite the considerable philosophical differences, they almost universally agree on the practical question of what results from a routine quantum-physics laboratory measurement. To describe this, a simple framework to use is the Copenhagen interpretation , and it will be implicitly used in this section; the utility of this approach has been verified countless times [ citation needed ] , and all other interpretations are necessarily constructed so as to give the same quantitative predictions as this in almost every case.
Quantum entanglement occurs when particles such as photons , electrons , molecules as large as buckyballs , [ 1 ] [ 2 ] and even small diamonds [ 3 ] [ 4 ] interact physically and then become separated; the type of interaction is such that each resulting member of a pair is properly described by the same quantum mechanical description ( state ), which is indefinite in terms of important factors such as position , [ 5 ] momentum , spin , polarization , etc. Quantum entanglement is a form of quantum superposition . When a measurement is made and it causes one member of such a pair to take on a definite value (e.g., clockwise spin), the other member of this entangled pair will at any subsequent time [ 6 ] be found to have taken the appropriately correlated value (e.g., counterclockwise spin).
KITP Lecture : Putting Weirdness to Work: Quantum Information Science
24 March 2011 Last updated at 13:58 GMT By Jason Palmer Science and technology reporter, BBC News, Dallas The quantum details of a flower's chemicals may make the difference to our noses The theory that our sense of smell has its basis in quantum physics events is gaining traction, say researchers. The idea remains controversial, but scientists reporting at the American Physical Society meeting in Dallas, US, are slowly unpicking how it could work. The key, they say, is tiny packets of energy, or quanta, lost by electrons. Experiments using tiny wires show that as electrons move on proteins within the nose, odour molecules could absorb these quanta and thereby be detected. Quantum physics explanation for smell gains traction
1. Introduction 2. Physics Letters A : Quantum entanglement, indistinguishability, and the absent-minded driver's problem
The Age of Entanglement: When Quantum Physics Was Reborn - Louisa Gilder
By now, pretty much everybody has heard of quantum computing , that arcane science of replacing ones and zeroes that power today’s computers with qubits (Schrödinger’s Cat versions of bits). Really usable quantum computers do not yet exist, but once they do, they will be able to do things like break the RSA encryption algorithm and simulate quantum systems effectively . (Paranoids, take note: NSA is well up to speed on this .) It also looks like quantum computation and quantum information theory will be an interesting new paradigm for physics in general : a historical precedent for this is the way classical information theory was used to reformulate thermodynamics . The first rule of speculating about the future is to expect magic , and while the implications of quantum information processing mentioned above are exciting and potentially earth-shaking, they are hardly magical. A Quantum Communist Manifesto at Tomorrow Elephant
No Comment on Qubit - The Quantum Pontiff A previous article on the meeting at Bell labs that I attended . Notable: The National Institute of Standards and Technology and the super-secret National Security Agency are backing U.S. quantum projects. NSA spokesman Ken White declined to elaborate, “given the sensitivities about our work to understand the secret communications of our foreign adversaries while protecting our own communica tions, and given our desire to preserve our nation’s unique advan tages in these pursuits.” Ack.
[IP] on crypto systems from CTO PGP [ Date Prev ] | [ Thread Prev ] | [ Thread Next ] | [ Date Next ] -- [ Date Index ] | [ Thread Index ] | [ interesting-people Home ] Subject : [IP] on crypto systems from CTO PGP From : David Farber <email@example.com> To : firstname.lastname@example.org Date : Mon, 10 Jul 2006 06:04:17 -0400 Begin forwarded message: From: Jon Callas <email@example.com> Date: July 9, 2006 5:56:15 PM EDT To: firstname.lastname@example.org Cc: Jon Callas <email@example.com> Subject: Re: [IP] more on FBI plans new Net-tapping push Brian Randell said: Just because the government *claims* it can't break a given code ... :-)
Breakthrough brings 'Star Trek' teleport a step closer - Science, News A team of physicists has teleported data over a distance of 89 miles from the Canary Island of La Palma to the neighbouring island of Tenerife, which is 10 times further than the previous attempt at teleportation through free space. The scientists did it by exploiting the "spooky" and virtually unfathomable field of quantum entanglement - when the state of matter rather than matter itself is sent from one place to another. Tiny packets or particles of light, photons, were used to teleport information between telescopes on the two islands. The photons did it by quantum entanglement and scientists hope it will form the basis of a way of sending encrypted data.
Quantum Entanglement - Solved (with pseudocode)
Quantum pseudo-telepathy is a phenomenon in quantum game theory resulting in anomalously high success rates in coordination games between separated players. These high success rates would require communication between the players in a purely classical (non-quantum) world; however, the game is set up such that during the game, communication is physically impossible. Quantum pseudo-telepathy is often and easily misrepresented as paranormal , [ 1 ] given that most people are not aware that the quantum laws of physics are subtly non-local and allow violations of Bell inequalities . This means that for quantum pseudo-telepathy to occur, prior to the game the participants need to share a physical system in an entangled quantum state , and during the game have to execute measurements on this entangled state as part of their game strategy. Games in which the application of such a quantum strategy leads to pseudo-telepathy are also referred to as quantum non-locality games. Quantum pseudo-telepathy
Quantum Entanglement Questions. Quantum Weirdness. 'We must be clear that when it comes to atoms, language can be used only as in poetry.' — N. Bohr. What I most love of quantum mechanics is that it is nondeterministic , which means that it’s generally doesn’t predict the outcome of any measurement with certainty. Instead, it just provides the probabilities of the outcomes , so that ‘measurements of a certain property done on two apparently identical systems can give different answers’ — to put it simply, the Truth is unfathomable .
723-CCC05screen.pdf (application/pdf Object)
Debunking and closing quantum entanglement 'loopholes' (PhysOrg.com) -- An international team of physicists, including a scientist based at The University of Queensland, has recently closed an additional 'loophole' in a test explaining one of science's strangest phenomena -- quantum entanglement. Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon that connects two particles (for example, photons) in such a way that changes to one of the particles are reflected instantly in the other, even if they are light-years apart. “Despite the enormous success of quantum mechanics , its completeness is experimentally still unproven after more than 75 years,” said Dr Alessandro Fedrizzi (now in UQ's School of Mathematics and Physics). Dr Fedrizzi co-wrote the findings of the study together with a team from the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, and the University of Vienna in Austria, led by Professor Anton Zeilinger.
Quantum Mechanics: Uncertainty Principle Used To Detect Entanglement Of Photon Shared Among Four Locations
Quantum networks advance with entanglement of photons, solid-state qubits
A Step Towards Quantum Computing: Entangling 10 Billion Particles | 80beats
New painting - Quantum Entanglement
Quantum Entanglement Could Stretch Across Time | Wired Science
Idealism Versus Materialism | A Philosophical Debate | Reading Between The Lines