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TOP TEN UNSOLVED PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS. Top 50 VC-Funded Greentech Startups. Venture capital firms have invested almost $20 billion into hundreds of greentech startups since 2005.

Top 50 VC-Funded Greentech Startups

All of these firms are looking to launch a disruptive force into their target markets, scale rapidly and grow quickly. Very few of these firms will actually make it. We put our energy analysts, reporters and editors to the task of picking fifty VC startups in greentech that have at least a fighting chance of succeeding as VC-funded start-ups and making an impact on our energy-intensive lives. Selection criteria: Technological edge Potential to severely disrupt the market Great management team Massive market opportunity Substantial war chest Feasible exit strategy Sheer hype power Only venture-backed private firms Methodology: We spread the names of 500 VC-funded firms on the Greentech Media dance floor and cut the head off of a chicken. Solar. BP Oil Disaster. Facts about gasification. Modern life depends upon energy and with each passing day it becomes more evident that clean, climate-friendly, and affordable energy technologies must be deployed as rapidly as possible.

facts about gasification

To that end, the United States and other nations are striving to make wind, solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and other “green” technologies a larger part of their overall energy mix. However, for technical and economic reasons, it will be many decades before these resources can meet more than a fraction of the world’s energy demand. In the meantime, developed countries such as the United States and developing nations such as China and India will continue to rely upon hydrocarbons (natural gas, petroleum, and coal) for electricity generation and transportation fuel. So, it is fair to ask: What are our hydrocarbon options? Natural Gas. Petroleum. Coal. Gasification. About Gasification and Wood Gas. Gasification is a process where substances such as wood, corn cobs, coal, cow manure, peach-pits, and other dried biomasses are reacted (burned).

About Gasification and Wood Gas

The process takes place in a device called a gasifier or gas producer, which can range in size, shape, and design, depending on application or design year. Instead of burning fast and bright like a campfire, the fuel in the gasifier has limited oxygen and separates the combustion of the fuel in multiple stages. The lack of oxygen and slow burn rate encourage the fuel to release flammable gases like methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Biomass Energy Foundation: Gasification. 2.4 Gasification fuels. 2.4.1 Need for selection of the right gasifier for each fuel 2.4.2 Energy content of the fuel 2.4.3 Moisture content of the fuel 2.4.4 Volatile matter content of the fuel 2.4.5 Ash content and ash chemical composition 2.4.6 Reactivity of the fuel 2.4.7 Particle size and size distribution 2.4.8 Bulk density of the fuel 2.4.9 Charring properties of the fuel 2.4.10 Assessment of the suitability of various types of biomass as gasifier fuel 2.4.1 Need for selection of the right gasifier for each fuel Biomass fuels available for gasification include charcoal, wood and wood waste (branches, twigs, roots, bark, woodshavings and sawdust) as well as a multitude of agricultural residues (maize cobs, coconut shells, coconut husks, cereal straws, rice husks, etc.) and peat.

2.4 Gasification fuels

Thus it follows that the "universal" gasifier, able to handle all or most fuels or fuel types, does not exist, and in all probability will not exist in the foreseeable future. 2.4.2 Energy content of the fuel and: Gasification - What is Gasification - Gasification systems. Gasification is a thermo-chemical process in which carbonaceous (carbon-rich) feedstocks such as coal, petro-coke or biomass are converted into a gas consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (and lesser amounts of carbon dioxide and other trace gases) under oxygen depleted, high pressure, high-heat and/or steam conditions.

Gasification - What is Gasification - Gasification systems

The resulting gaseous compound is called Syngas. Carried out under proper conditions, gasification is an efficient energy extracting process that can return double benefits as a waste stream disposal system. Israeli desalination technology creates green energy in China - April 2011. Energy efficient desalination – not a pipe dream (Media Release) Water Benefits Accounting considers the different ways in which we value water.

Energy efficient desalination – not a pipe dream (Media Release)

The delivery of energy efficient desalination received a boost today (Friday 18 May) with the establishment of a major new research collaboration between CSIRO and nine of Australia’s leading universities. The research aims to dramatically increase efficiency, and reduce the financial and environmental costs of producing desalinated water. The research will help advance water desalination as an alternative water supply option for Australia. The research addresses one of the biggest challenges currently facing Australia, the delivery of sustainable water supplies.

It will focus on energy efficient and environmentally sound desalination and water recycling programs. Everyday grass could provide green fuel. A five-year research project has come up with a way of generating green energy from a humble everyday grass.

Everyday grass could provide green fuel

Researchers at Teesside University's Contaminated Land and Water Centre began the project in 2004 to see which plants could best be grown on brownfield sites as a way of improving unsightly blots on the landscape. Now, the research by the BioReGen (Biomass, Remediation, re-Generation) project team has revealed that reed canary grass can be turned into an excellent fuel for biomass power stations and, on a smaller scale, boilers in buildings like schools. The native British grass is turned into bricks and pellets. These not only burn well but also don't add to greenhouse gases or contribute to global warming. Switch Grass: Fuel for the Future? Turning Seaweed into the Fuel of the Future. Seaweed holds promise as more than an ingredient in a purifying face mask or a maki roll.

Turning Seaweed into the Fuel of the Future

So say researchers at E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., which alongside Seattle-based Bio Architecture Lab (BAL) has secured $9 million from the Department of Energy to explore seaweed's potential as a feedstock for biobutanol, an advanced biofuel. Their venture appears to have largely cornered the current market. Though more than 200 companies have looked into algae-based biofuels, DuPont and BAL say most others have shied away from using macroalgae, like kelp. "We're in the vanguard here on this technology. There are other people who have talked about changing microalgae -- green algae that floats in the water -- into advanced biofuel, but [using] seaweed is unique," said DuPont's Nathan Danielson, a program manager who oversaw the companies' DOE grant application.

Seaweed in the Fuel Tank? Turning seaweed into a fuel source could help ease competition on land for growing crops.

Seaweed in the Fuel Tank?

Kelp and other seaweeds could be used for biofuel production. Kelp grows quickly and doesn't compete with food production like land-based biofuel crops do. So far, the difficulties of cultivating and harvesting kelp make it cost ineffective. Seaweed farms 'could fuel future' Pilot seaweed and algae farms are needed to assess Scotland's marine biomass potential, experts have urged.

Seaweed farms 'could fuel future'

Let's use seaweed as fuel. Clean and green: A Californian kelp forest. Credit: iStockphoto The dream of tackling climate change with biofuels has been tarnished by the rush to produce them on land. Not only are there serious environmental costs, including deforestation, water use, production of greenhouse gases, and energy-efficiency limitations, but there are also rising concerns about the effects on the world’s poor. Already the price of food is being driven up as land is taken away from food production, increasing the cost of food and nutrition for those who can least afford it.

It is curious then that, bar a brief mention in a recent paper on sustainable biofuels by the London-based Royal Society, the potential for biomass production at sea is largely ignored. 'Green fuel' from seaweed could help solve energy crisis. Scottish Seaweed Offers Bio-Fuel Solution. Seaweed may fuel future energy demands › News in Science (ABC Science) News in Science Friday, 15 July 2011 Jessica MarshallDiscovery News Aquatic biorefinery Kelp and other seaweed could be biofuels of the future, avoiding competition with food crops for land and scarce freshwater resources, say researchers.

Researchers gathered at the Society for Experimental Biology meeting in Glasgow, Scotland heard how fast-growing cultivated kelp forests attached to offshore wind farms could provide the biofuels of the future. So far, the process is not economical, but rising oil prices, or the possibility of first extracting higher-value products from the seaweed, such as food additives, could change that. "We've got a lot of seaweed growing out in the sea and we're not really using it. "They grow very fast," says Yannick Lerat of the Technical Research Center on Seaweed in Pleubian, France. "There is no need to use freshwater," he says.

Easier to convert than land-based crops. Waste Management squeezes fuel from landfills. Trash collection giant Waste Management and the Linde Group petroleum engineering firm have partnered to create a plant that makes liquefied natural gas (LNG) from landfill gas, both companies announced this week. Linde designed and operates the plant which is located close to Waste Management's Altamont Landfill near Livermore, Calif. "The opening of the world's largest landfill-gas-to-LNG plant right here in California is a milestone and a testament to our commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Now that the technology has been proven, we look forward to seeing its adoption spread so more vehicles can run on garbage," Linda Adams, secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency, said in a statement. Contrary to what might be inferred from Adams' enthusiastic sound bite, the project is not the utopistic dream of incinerating any old trash in a DeLorean for fuel, nor has either company claimed this. Demand grows for natural gas waste hauling. Demand grows for natural gas waste hauling The sudden rise in the cost of gasoline and diesel fuel has sent shockwaves throughout the American economy.

Higher fuel costs seep into every aspect of doing business and result in across-the-board price increases for consumer, commercial and industrial goods and services. It has also acutely impacted waste haulers, since capital equipment (primarily trucks) and fuel expenses represent the largest expense categories, excepting labor costs. Waste handlers do have a basic, significant advantage over long-haul truckers, however. Since most collection routes are local, waste haulers with larger fleets have the option of daily fueling natural gas vehicles (NGV) with either compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). “Adding it all together, CNG roughly equals $1.35 to $1.60 per diesel gallon equivalent, depending on where you are in the country. Waste-to-Biofuels plant to make gas from garbage. Future site of the Waste-to-Biofuels complex Image Gallery (4 images) If you’re a fan of the original Back to the Future movie, then you probably liked the scene at the end where Doc Brown used some random household waste to fuel his time-traveling DeLorean.

Well, we’re now getting a little bit closer to that being a reality... sort of. Gas From Trash: Waste Management’s Big Biofuel Play. From trash to gas: Waste gasification trumps incineration in Finland — Nordic Energy Solutions. An ultramodern facility in the city of Lahti maximises the energy recovered from municipal solid waste. A render of the KYVO2 plant currently under construction. Gas Waste Incinerators, Gas Flaring. Methane Fuel Gas from Livestock Wastes. The Uniter: Winnipeg’s Weekly Urban Journal. Scotch whiskey waste fuels biomass plant. SPEYSIDE, Scotland, Sept. 7 (UPI) -- Grain waste produced by a Scotland whiskey distillery will be converted into energy under a $9.7 million project announced by beverage maker Diageo.

The world's biggest malt whiskey distiller, which manufactures such brands as Johnnie Walker, Crown Royal, J&B and Windsor, said last week it will build a new bio-energy plant at its Glenlossie distillery complex in Speyside, Scotland. WASTE PLASTIC TECHNOLOGY. From Waste Biomass to Jet Fuel. Low-carbon aviation fuel comes from industrial waste gases.

17 October 2011. City power plant waste heat fuels district heating. CAMBRIDGE, Mass. Waste to Energy. As of 2000, there were approximately 102 "Waste to Energy" facilities using some form of combustion process operating in 31 states in the United States. U.S. Backs Plant to Make Fuel From Corn Waste. InSource Energy Blog. Food waste is fuel, whether it is being eaten by people, animals or microbes. But because humans are not omnivores, preparing food for our tables produces food wastes – and always will. Fundamentally, there’s no difference between the food wastes produced in a domestic kitchen, and those arising from the food processing industry, and traditionally these wastes have been thrown away or perhaps recycled into animal fodder or back into the soil – it has been the easiest, cheapest thing to do.

The heightened awareness of the need to reduce carbon emissions and generate renewable energy has increased interest in exploiting the fuel value of those food wastes as an alternative means of managing food waste disposal. Food waste: a new fuel for CHP in the US. Mayor unveils plans to turn London's food waste into eco-fuel. Fast Fuel from Food Waste in Six Days at New Tech Centre.

Britain turning food waste into fuel. Fuel From Food Waste: Bacteria Provide Power. Researchers have combined the efforts of two kinds of bacteria to produce hydrogen in a bioreactor, with the product from one providing food for the other. New facility to turn sludge into fuel for vehicles, speed up Lime Lake cleanup - Local. Israeli startup transforms sewage sludge into fuel.

Piedmont Biofuels, Novozymes will turn sludge to fuel - Technology. From sludge to fuel. Sewage Sludge Biodiesel Costs Just 10¢ a Gallon More Than Petrol. BioPetrol Website. Sewage Sludge Turned into Biomass Fuel / Asia Biomass Energy Cooperation Promotion Office - Asia Biomass Office. Algae Could Solve World's Fuel Crisis. 15 Algae Startups Bringing Pond Scum to Fuel Tanks — Cleantech News and Analysis. Magnetic Algae Will Reduce the Price of Biofuel. Ancient algae could become future biofuel source. Exploring Algae as Fuel. Oozing Biofuel: Algae Could Solve World's Fuel Crisis - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International. MIT persuades algae to make hydrogen fuel. Cultivating Algae for Liquid Fuel Production.