Pauli Exclusion Principle
In particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass". This is a most-important property of almost all elementary particles. According to this theory, particles gain mass by interacting with the so-called Higgs field that permeates all space. More precisely, the Higgs mechanism endows the three so-called gauge bosons Z, W+ and W− with mass. These particles would otherwise be massless; but actually they are very heavy, with values around 80 GeV/c2. But also more common particles are endowed with mass by this mechanism, e.g. the simple electron, or the quark constituents of, e.g., protons, technically through spontaneous symmetry breaking, where, however, due to the specific form of the symmetry breaking, instead of the usual transverse Nambu–Goldstone bosons a longitudinal boson, named the Higgs boson, appears. Higgs mechanism
This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe. For individual lists of the different particles, see the individual pages given below. Elementary particles Fermions List of particles
Large Hadron Cyclotron
Matter vs. Antimatter
Physicists have created a new kind of light by chilling photons into a blob state. Just like solids, liquids and gases, this recently discovered condition represents a state of matter. Called a Bose-Einstein condensate, it was created in 1995 with super-cold atoms of a gas, but scientists had thought it could not be done with photons, which are basic units of light. However, physicists Jan Klärs, Julian Schmitt, Frank Vewinger and Martin Weitz of the University of Bonn in Germany reported accomplishing it. They have dubbed the new particles "super photons." Particles in a traditional Bose-Einstein condensate are cooled down close to absolute zero, until they glom onto each other and become indistinguishable, acting as one giant particle.
(PhysOrg.com) -- A team of scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has detected six isotopes, never seen before, of the superheavy elements 104 through 114. Starting with the creation of a new isotope of the yet-to-be-named element 114, the researchers observed successive emissions of alpha particles that yielded new isotopes of copernicium (element 112), darmstadtium (element 110), hassium (element 108), seaborgium (element 106), and rutherfordium (element 104). Rutherfordium ended the chain when it decayed by spontaneous fission. Six new isotopes of the superheavy elements discovered