# Programming

Coding Techniques and Programming Practices. Rob Caron Microsoft Corporation February 2000 Summary: This article provides coding techniques and programming practices for improving the quality of source code. (12 printed pages) Introduction Superior coding techniques and programming practices are hallmarks of a professional programmer. The bulk of programming consists of making a large number of small choices while attempting to solve a larger set of problems. How wisely those choices are made depends largely upon the programmer's skill and expertise. This document addresses some fundamental coding techniques and provides a collection of coding practices from which to learn. The readability of source code has a direct impact on how well a developer comprehends a software system. Coding Standards and Code Reviews A comprehensive coding standard encompasses all aspects of code construction and, while developers should exercise prudence in its implementation, it should be closely followed.

Coding Techniques Names Routines Variables Tables. 1.6 Higher-Order Functions. We have seen that functions are a method of abstraction that describe compound operations independent of the particular values of their arguments. That is, in square, >>> def square(x): return x * x we are not talking about the square of a particular number, but rather about a method for obtaining the square of any number. Of course, we could get along without ever defining this function, by always writing expressions such as and never mentioning square explicitly. This practice would suffice for simple computations such as square, but would become arduous for more complex examples such as abs or fib. In general, lacking function definition would put us at the disadvantage of forcing us to work always at the level of the particular operations that happen to be primitives in the language (multiplication, in this case) rather than in terms of higher-level operations. 1.6.1 Functions as Arguments Consider the following three functions, which all compute summations.

>>> sum_naturals(100)5050. Coding Techniques and Programming Practices. Programming paradigm. Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Common programming paradigms include: imperative which allows side effects,functional which disallows side effects,declarative which does not state the order in which operations execute,object-oriented which groups code together with the state the code modifies,procedural which groups code into functions,logic which has a particular style of execution model coupled to a particular style of syntax and grammar, andsymbolic programming which has a particular style of syntax and grammar.[1][2][3] Overview Overview of the various programming paradigms according to Peter Van Roy[4]:5 In object-oriented programming, programs are treated as a set of interacting objects.

Programming paradigms can also be compared with programming models which allow invoking an execution model by using only an API. History Machine code Further paradigms Design Patterns | Object Oriented Design. A Beginner's Guide to Design Patterns. Ever wondered what design patterns are? In this article, I'll explain why design patterns are important, and will provide some examples, in PHP, of when and why they should be used. Design patterns are optimized, reusable solutions to the programming problems that we encounter every day. A design pattern is not a class or a library that we can simply plug into our system; it's much more than that. It is a template that has to be implemented in the correct situation. It's not language-specific either. A good design pattern should be implementable in most—if not all—languages, depending on the capabilities of the language. There are three basic kinds of design patterns: structural creationalbehavioral Structural patterns generally deal with relationships between entities, making it easier for these entities to work together.

Creational patterns provide instantiation mechanisms, making it easier to create objects in a way that suits the situation. Pretty simple, right? Design Patterns. In software engineering, a design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. A design pattern isn't a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Uses of Design Patterns Design patterns can speed up the development process by providing tested, proven development paradigms. Effective software design requires considering issues that may not become visible until later in the implementation. Reusing design patterns helps to prevent subtle issues that can cause major problems and improves code readability for coders and architects familiar with the patterns.

Often, people only understand how to apply certain software design techniques to certain problems. In addition, patterns allow developers to communicate using well-known, well understood names for software interactions. Creational design patterns Criticism Read next. Five mini programming projects for the Python beginner. After Shelly wrote this post, Webucator, a company that provides Python training, volunteered to create solutions for these projects. They've made a series of videos that'll help you out if you need it.

Learning a new programming language is both the most exciting and the most humbling experience. For me, that language has recently been Python, which I’ve been learning over these last few months. And as every coder knows, the best way to learn a language is to apply it in a project. But what happens when you don’t have a giant, ambitious project? For me, that’s where the sandbox comes in. Why not build a few sandcastles before piling up the rocks to our grand ol’ castle? With that in mind, here are five mini programming projects to get you started on learning Python. 1. The Goal: Like the title suggests, this project involves writing a program that simulates rolling dice. Concepts to keep in mind: 2. 3. The Goal: Inspired by Summer Son’s Mad Libs project with Javascript. 4. 5. 46 Simple Python Exercises.

This is version 0.45 of a collection of simple Python exercises constructed (but in many cases only found and collected) by Torbjörn Lager (torbjorn.lager@ling.gu.se). Most of them involve characters, words and phrases, rather than numbers, and are therefore suitable for students interested in language rather than math.

Very simple exercises Higher order functions and list comprehensions Simple exercises including I/O Somewhat harder exercises A sentence splitter is a program capable of splitting a text into sentences. 7 lines of code, 3 minutes: Implement a programming language. A small (yet Turing-equivalent) language The easiest programming language to implement is a minimalist, higher-order functional programming language known as the lambda calculus. The lambda calculus actually lives at the core of all the major functional languages--Haskell, Scheme and ML--but it also lives inside JavaScript, Python and Ruby.

It's even hiding inside Java, if you know where to find it. A brief history Alonzo Church developed the lambda calculus in 1929. Back then, it wasn't called a programming language because there were no computers; there wasn't anything to "program. " It was really just a mathematical notation for reasoning about functions. Fortunately, Alonzo Church had a Ph.D. student named Alan Turing. Alan Turing defined the Turing machine, which became the first accepted definition of a general-purpose computer. What makes this remarkable is that there are only three kinds of expressions in the lambda calculus: variable references, anonymous functions and function calls.

[solved] install colour scheme in gedit (Page 1) / Help & Support (Crunchbang 11 "Waldorf") Teach yourself to code. 100 Little Programming Exercises – go-left Software. The exercises are grouped in three categories for people who want to learn to write software and for experienced developers who are learning a new language. The exercises focus on learning how to use control structures (if/then/else/switch/for/repeat/while) and data structures (variable/list/map/stack/dictionary/pointer). They do not require a complex user interface although nobody is stopping you from writing one.

You learn something there as well. My personal experience is that when learning a new language designing the user interface can get in the way and chew up a lot of time – your mileage may vary BeginnerThese exercises don’t require a complex algorithm and therefore focus on the task of writing the program, getting used to the language and the development environment.

The solution should in general be far less than 100 lines of code. Here is the list of exercises Simple Problems A.1 Factorial Ext 1: Change the program so that it computes the factorial iteratively and recursively.

## Programming Python

Programming Ruby.