EAA presents Study on Aluminium for Safer trucks together with Transport and Environment. EAA presents study on Aluminium for Safer Trucks together with Transport & Environment (T&E) Brussels, 20 March 2012: EAA, together with Transport & Environment (T&E), have presented to the press on 20 March a study on the design of tractor fronts for optimised safety and fuel consumption.
The “Safer Trucks” concept brings a valuable contribution to road safety and environment by improving three aspects: passive safety, aerodynamics and safety of vulnerable road users. EAA Automotive & Transport group has extensively worked with FKA (Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen) on a design concept for crash boxes (or “Crash Management System”) at the front of trucks’ cabin that would absorb energy in case of a frontal crash with a vehicle. The share of lorries in fatal accidents is disproportionate: trucks represent 3% of the vehicle fleet but are involved in 18% of fatal accidents (EU27 in 2008). The following objectives could be met with limited costs for transport manufacturers: Blog Archive » Improving Aluminum Alloy (US) Posted by admin | Comments : (0) With the majority of the Airbus A380 fuselage and 50% of the Boeing 777 made from aluminum, improving its performance is critical.
(Credit Photo @ INS News Agency) The aerospace industry has used aluminum and its alloys for parts and skins for decades. Today it is the most common material used in the industry; used in the manufacture of advanced commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus 380, and military aircraft such as the Boeing UCAV or the Boeing F/A-18 E/F This is because aluminum, heat-treated to relatively high strengths, machines and forms easily to complex shapes and low weight. Commonly employed for wrought products with thicknesses of 0.6mm to 250mm are aluminum alloys in the 7000 series.
Aluminum Heat Treating Classification of aluminum alloys are as either heat-treatable or not heat-treatable, depending on whether the alloy responds to precipitation hardening. Quenching Source : Read More Recent Posts: EAA presents study on Aluminium for Safer Trucks (April 2012) > Eurometaux. EAA, together with Transport & Environment (T&E), have presented to the press on 20 March a study on the design of tractor fronts for optimised safety and fuel consumption.
The “Safer Trucks” concept brings a valuable contribution to road safety and environment by improving three aspects: passive safety, aerodynamics and safety of vulnerable road users. EAA Automotive & Transport group has extensively worked with FKA (Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen) on a design concept for crash boxes (or “Crash Management System”) at the front of trucks’ cabin that would absorb energy in case of a frontal crash with a vehicle. The share of lorries in fatal accidents is disproportionate: trucks represent 3% of the vehicle fleet but are involved in 18% of fatal accidents (EU27 in 2008). The study shows that the severity of car to truck accidents could be significantly reduced if an 80 cm energy absorbing crash box was used at the front of a tractor. 03/16 > BE Suède 28 > Découverte d'un nouveau convertisseur catalytique pour le diesel. 06/14 > BE Allemagne 575 > Des amortisseurs de vibrations actifs à base d'élastomère.
06/18 > BE Norvège 109 > L'aimant le plus puissant du monde. 06/14 > BE Allemagne 575 > Capacité de décharge de 900 mAh/g pour des batteries lithium-soufre. New electrode material could lead to rechargeable sodium batteries. A new electrode material could help make lightweight, powerful rechargeable sodium batteries to replace lithium-ion batteries used in electronics and some electric vehicles.
The material contains widely available iron, instead of the nickel and cobalt commonly used in these electrodes, and enables a similar energy density to electrodes in lithium batteries. Sodium is an attractive candidate to replace lithium in batteries because it’s cheaper and widely available around the world. But building a sodium battery requires redesigning battery technology to accommodate the chemical reactivity and larger size of sodium atoms. A rechargeable battery, whether lithium or sodium, contains two electrodes, the anode and the cathode. When a battery with an anode made from sodium metal discharges, electrons flow from that electrode to the other.
When the battery is charged, this process is reversed: electrons flow out of the cathode, releasing the sodium ions inside. Mine to Magnet. Richard (Rick) Mills Ahead of the Herd As a general rule, the most successful man in life is the man who has the best information The rare earths are a group of 17 elements comprising Scandium, Yttrium, and the Lanthanides.
The Lanthanides are a group of 15 (Cerium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, Gadolinium, Holmium, Lanthanum, Lutetium, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Samarium, Terbium, Thorium, Thulium, Ytterbium) chemically similar elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, inclusive. Yttrium, atomic number 39, isn’t a lanthanide but is included in the rare earths because it often occurs with them in nature - it has similar chemical properties. Scandium, atomic number 21 is also included in the group although it usually occurs only in minor amounts. The most abundant rare earth elements (REE) are each found in the earth’s crust in amounts equal to nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, or lead - Cerium is the 25th most abundant element of the 78 common elements in the Earth’s crust. Source USGS Uses. Rare Earths from Mine to Magnet. The rare earths are a group of 17 elements comprising scandium, yttrium and the lanthanides.
The lanthanides are a group of 15 (cerium, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gadolinium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, neodymium, praseodymium, samarium, terbium, thorium, hulium, ytterbium) chemically similar elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, inclusive. Yttrium, atomic number 39, isn't a lanthanide but is included in the rare earths because it often occurs with them in nature - it has similar chemical properties. Scandium, atomic number 21 is also included in the group although it usually occurs only in minor amounts.
The most abundant rare earth elements (REE) are each found in the Earth's crust in amounts equal to nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, or lead - cerium is the 25th most abundant element of the 78 common elements in the Earth's crust. Even the two least abundant REEs (Thulium, Lutetium) are nearly 200 times more common than gold. Source: USGS Uses China Wilderness of Mirrors. Reality Check: First Solar and Tellurium. Is there enough Tellurium to meet the future needs of First Solar (FSLR) and other thin-film CdTe solar sell producers?
The answer is crucial to long-term investors in FSLR who are looking at a P/E over 100. With a market capitalization of $16 billion and a likely future profit of $1 per peak watt ($1/Wp), FSLR needs to produce 1 GWp per quarter to have a P/E of 18. Old research from 2000 (and still being referenced as a 2006 Hoffman article) claims there's enough Te for 20 GWp/yr. Newer 2005 research says otherwise. FSLR expects to produce 0.380 GWp in 2008 which will use only 10% or 20% of the world's 200 to 400 tonnes/yr Tellurium production ( 100 tonnes Te per 1 GWp is required for a 3 micron thickness).
I have no doubt that FSLR can predict and is fully aware of its Te needs over the next 3 years. Obviously, anyone interested in FSLR needs to be concerned about the availability of Te rather than simply relying on 2000 research that claims 20 GWp/yr is possible. Follow Scott Roberts. Plusieurs technologies ''vertes'' vont pâtir de tensions sur l'approvisionnement en matières minérales rares. Graphite: Supply and Demand. A magnified image of large flake graphite using an electron microscope.
In 2010 a European Commission included graphite among the 14 materials it considered high in both economic importance and supply risk. The British Geological Survey listed graphite as one of the materials to most likely be in short supply globally. The US has also declared graphite a critical material. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and the State Department, said America could be hurt if terrorists were to disable graphite mines in China. Supply and Demand The natural graphite market is 1-1.2 million tons per year and consists of several different forms of graphite – flake, amorphous and lump. China, India and Canada are responsible for most graphite mining and processing with China producing the lion’s share at 70–80%. Currently China imports a significant amount of North Korea’s large flake graphite production raising considerable doubts in regards to China’s abilities to ramp up its graphite supply.
Graphite: Pencil It In. As a general rule, the most successful man in life is the man who has the best information Sometime between 1500 and 1565 a large graphite deposit was discovered in Cumbria, England.
Because the graphite was extremely pure and solid it could easily be sawed into sticks. The graphite was actually thought to be a form of lead and called plumbago – Latin for lead ore. The Borrowable Mine was soon ordered to be put under armed guard by Queen Elizabeth because the “lead” could be used to line the moulds for making her armies cannonballs. But black marketers managed to smuggle out the graphite for continued use in pencils. Today graphite (named for the Greek word meaning "to write") is attracting the attention of investors, and for just as good a reason as it once attracted artists 500 years ago.
Carbon By mass carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe (after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen) and it’s the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Graphite Graphoil Nuclear Power. Graphite. The mineral / ˈ ɡ r æ f aɪ t / is an allotrope of carbon . It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω ( ), "to draw/write", [ 4 ] for its use in pencils , where it is commonly called (not to be confused with the metallic element lead ). Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is an electrical conductor , a semimetal . It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes . Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions . Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds.
There are three principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposit: Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated, flat, plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular; [ edit ] Occurrence [ edit ] Properties [ edit ] Structure [ edit ] Other names. Carbon nanotube. Rotating Carbon Nanotube Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than for any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science and technology. In particular, owing to their extraordinary thermal conductivity and mechanical and electrical properties, carbon nanotubes find applications as additives to various structural materials. For instance, nanotubes form a tiny portion of the material(s) in some (primarily carbon fiber) baseball bats, golf clubs, or car parts. Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family.
Applied quantum chemistry, specifically, orbital hybridization best describes chemical bonding in nanotubes. Types of carbon nanotubes and related structures Terminology Torus Allotropes of carbon. Diamond Diamond is one well known allotrope of carbon. The hardness and high dispersion of light of diamond make it useful for both industrial applications and jewelry. Diamond is the hardest known natural mineral. This makes it an excellent abrasive and makes it hold polish and luster extremely well. No known naturally occurring substance can cut (or even scratch) a diamond, except another diamond. The market for industrial-grade diamonds operates much differently from its gem-grade counterpart.
With the continuing advances being made in the production of synthetic diamond, future applications are beginning to become feasible. Each carbon atom in a diamond is covalently bonded to four other carbons in a tetrahedron. Graphite Graphite, named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γράφειν (graphein, "to draw/write", for its use in pencils) is one of the most common allotropes of carbon. Effect of heat: it is the most stable allotrope of carbon. Graphene Graphene. High-quality graphene is strong, light, nearly transparent and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Its interactions with other materials and with light and its inherently two-dimensional nature produce unique properties, such as the bipolar transistor effect, ballistic transport of charges and large quantum oscillations. At the time of its isolation in 2004, researchers studying carbon nanotubes were already familiar with graphene's composition, structure and properties, which had been calculated decades earlier.
The combination of familiarity, extraordinary properties, surprising ease of isolation and unexpectedly high quality of the obtained graphene enabled a rapid increase in graphene research. Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene". Definition History The theory of graphene was first explored by P.