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Chronology. Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology[1]


Social sciences. Social science is an academic discipline concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It includes anthropology, economics, political science, psychology and sociology. In a wider sense, it may often include some fields in the humanities[1] such as archaeology, history, law, and linguistics. The term may however be used in the specific context of referring to the original science of society, established in 19th century, sociology (Latin: socius, "companion"; Greek λόγος, lógos, "word", "knowledge", "study. "). Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx and Max Weber are typically cited as the principal architects of modern social science by this definition.[2] Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense.

History[edit] Branches[edit] Anthropology[edit] Anthropology is the holistic "science of man", a science of the totality of human existence. Portal:Technology. Technology is the making, modification or improvement, applied activity or behavior, use and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, or environmental modifications or arrangement in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function.


It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, environmental arrangement and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from Greek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē), meaning "art, skill, craft", and -λογία (-logía), meaning "study of-". The term can be applied either generally or to many specific areas, examples of which include construction technology, medical technology and information technology.

Shale oil extraction is an industrial process for unconventional oil production. Portal:Society. Portal:Spirituality. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The term spirituality lacks a definitive definition, although social scientists have defined spirituality as the search for "the sacred," where "the sacred" is broadly defined as that which is set apart from the ordinary and worthy of veneration.


The term "spirituality" is derived from the Latin spiritualitas and the Biblical "roeach/pneuma" . It means to be put in motion, to be a living person, and being driven. In a Bibilical context it means being animated by God. The notion of "spiritual experience" plays an important role in modern spirituality, but has a relatively recent origin. Such pursuit has long been an integral part of the religious life of humanity. In the contemporary usage "mysticism" has become an umbrella term, conflated with spirituality and esotericism. Practices associated with mysticism include meditation and contemplative prayer. Spirituality-related topics Purge server cache. Portal:Religion. Portal:Philosophy.

Portal:Mathematics. Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantity, space, structure, and change.


Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. However, mathematical proofs are less formal and painstaking than proofs in mathematical logic. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions.

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said, "The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. Portal:Science. Edit The Science Portal Science is formed from methodical study of nature stemming from testable explanations and predictions.


An older and closely related current meaning emerged from Aristotle, whereby "science" referred to the body of reliable knowledge that is logically and rationally explained (see "History and etymology" section below). Since classical antiquity, science as knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the two words, "science" and "philosophy", were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. Portal:History. Portal:Health and fitness. Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all militaries.

Portal:Health and fitness

The notion of physical fitness is used in two close meanings. General fitness In its most general meaning, physical fitness is a general state of good physical health. A physically handicapped person's body may be physically fit (healthy), though its ability is likely to be less than optimum. Physical fitness is usually a result of regular physical activity and proper nutrition. Physical fitness can be divided into different areas, including: The government Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans say to aim for at least 2 hours and 30 minutes of aerobic activity that requires moderate effort each week. Task-oriented fitness A person may be said to be physically fit to perform a particular task with a reasonable efficiency, for example, fit for military service.

Portal:Geography. Portal:Current events. Portal:Sports and games. Portal:Sustainable development. Portal:Culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For a topical guide of this subject, see Outline of culture Culture generally refers to the patterns of human activity, and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.


Cultures can be "understood as systems of symbols and meanings that even their creators contest, that lack fixed boundaries, that are constantly in flux, and that interact and compete with one another". Culture can be defined as all the ways of life: including arts, beliefs, and institutions of a population that are passed down from generation to generation. Culture has been called "the way of life for an entire society". Today the Greeks call themselves Hellenes (Έλληνες), though they have been known by a number of different names throughout history. Purge cache. Portal:Arts. Portal:Contents/Portals. Portal:Contents. The free encyclopedia.