Programming Languages (High Level)

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Visual programming language In computing, a visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation. For example, many VPLs (known as dataflow or diagrammatic programming)[1] are based on the idea of "boxes and arrows", where boxes or other screen objects are treated as entities, connected by arrows, lines or arcs which represent relations. Definition[edit] VPLs may be further classified, according to the type and extent of visual expression used, into icon-based languages, form-based languages, and diagram languages. Visual programming environments provide graphical or iconic elements which can be manipulated by users in an interactive way according to some specific spatial grammar for program construction.

Visual programming language

Alice (software) Alice (software) Alice is a freeware object-based programming educational programming language with an integrated development environment (IDE). Alice uses a drag and drop environment to create computer animations using 3D models. The software was developed first at University of Virginia, then Carnegie Mellon (from 1997), by a research group led by the late Randy Pausch.
The official implementation, the Melbourne Mercury Compiler, is available for most Unix platforms, including Mac OS X, as well as for Microsoft Windows. Mercury is based on the logic programming language Prolog. It has the same syntax, and the same basic concepts such as the SLD resolution algorithm. It can ostensibly be viewed as a pure subset of Prolog with strong types and modes. As such, it is often compared to its predecessor, both in terms of features, and run-time efficiency. The language is designed with software engineering principles in mind. Mercury (programming language) Mercury (programming language)

Cappuccino Web Framework - Build Desktop Class Applications in Objective-J and JavaScript

Cappuccino 0.9.7 After nearly a year's worth of work we are truly excited to introduce Cappuccino 0.9.7, a major update to the Cappuccino framework featuring a massive number of new features. Since Cappuccino is such a wide framework, ranging from a low foundations such as our Objective-J compiler, all the way up to the full featured, fully themable UI kit AppKit, it's incredibly hard to summarise all the changes. Cappuccino Web Framework - Build Desktop Class Applications in Objective-J and JavaScript
OPS5 OPS5 The OPS (said to be short for "Official Production System") family was developed in the late 1970s by Charles Forgy while at Carnegie Mellon University. Allen Newell's research group in artificial intelligence had been working on production systems for some time, but Forgy's implementation, based on his Rete algorithm, was especially efficient, sufficiently so that it was possible to scale up to larger problems involving hundreds or thousands of rules. OPS5 uses a forward chaining inference engine; programs execute by scanning "working memory elements" (which are vaguely object-like, with classes and attributes) looking for matches with the rules in "production memory".
Prolog is a general purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.[1][2][3] Prolog has its roots in first-order logic, a formal logic, and unlike many other programming languages, Prolog is declarative: the program logic is expressed in terms of relations, represented as facts and rules. A computation is initiated by running a query over these relations.[4] The language was first conceived by a group around Alain Colmerauer in Marseille, France, in the early 1970s and the first Prolog system was developed in 1972 by Colmerauer with Philippe Roussel.[5][6] Syntax and semantics[edit] Data types[edit] Prolog Prolog