Kriminologie. The Criminology Mega-Site.
Kriminologie-Lexikon ONLINE. Famous Trials - UMKC School of Law - Prof. Douglas Linder. Universität Konstanz | Rechtswissenschaft | Das Konstanzer Inventar- Übersicht | Links zu kriminologischen Ressourcen (copy 1) Krimpedia:Hauptseite – Krimpedia. Links — Juristische Fakultät. Auf dieser Seite werden unserer Meinung nach bemerkenswerte Links mit dem Schwerpunkt Kriminologie vorgestellt: Inhaltsverzeichnis / Contents: Institutionen und Organisationen / Institutions and Organizations Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz / Germany, Austria, Switzerland Deutschland / Germany Österreich / Austria Schweiz / Switzerland Weitere Europäische Länder / Other European Countries Belgien / Belgium Frankreich / France Georgien / Georgia The Center of Study and Prediction of Crime (CSPC, Tbilisi) Irland / Ireland (Republic of) College of Management and I.T, Criminology (CMIT) School of Social Sciences and Law (Dublin Institute of Technology)National Documentation Centre on Drug UseMA Programme in Criminology (Dublin Institute of Technology) UCD Institute of Criminology (University College, Dublin) Italien / Italy Kroatien / Croatia Croation Society of Victimology (Zagreb) Niederlande / Netherlands Russische Föderation / Russia San Marino Società Sammarinese di Criminologia Serbien / Serbia.
Sekundärliteratur: Kriminologie - TourLiteratur. Autoren A - Kt • Althoff, Martina (Hrsg.): Zwischen Anomie und Inszenierung. Interpretationen der Entwicklung der Kriminalität und der sozialen Kontrolle. Baden-Baden 2004. • Arasse, Daniel: Die Guillotine. . • Arnold, Hermann: Das Vagantenunwesen in der Pfalz während des 18. . • Arnold, Hermann: Vaganten, Komödianten, Fieranten und Briganten. . • Aschaffenburg, Gustav: Das Verbrechen und seine Bekämpfung. . • Avé-Lallemant, Friedrich Christian Benedict: Das deutsche Gaunerthum in seiner sozialpolitischen, literarischen und linguistischen Ausbildung zu seinem heutigen Bestande. 2 Bde.
. • Ay, Karl-Ludwig: Unehrlichkeit, Vagantentum und Bettelwesen in der vorindustriellen Gesellschaft. . • Baader, Joseph (Hrsg.): Nürnberger Polizeiordnungen aus dem 13. - 15. . • Bachhiesl, Christian / Gartler, Ingeborg / Nessmann, Andrea / Jürgen Tremer (Hrsg.): Räuber, Mörder, Sittenstrolche. 37 Fälle aus dem Kriminalmuseum der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. . • Bankl, Hans: Im Rücken steckt das Messer. . • Hagen, C. Correlates of crime. Many different correlates of crime have been proposed with varying degrees of empirical support. The causes of crime is one of the major research areas in criminology. A large number of narrow and broad theories have been proposed for explaining crime. These must then be scrutinized further because correlation does not imply causation. The Handbook of Crime Correlates (2009) is a systematic review of worldwide empirical studies on crime publicized in the academic literature. The results of a total of 5200 studies are summarized.
In order to identify well-established relationships to crime consistency scores were calculated for the factors which many studies have examined. Biological Age Crime is most frequent in second and third decades of life. Gender Males commit more overall and violent crime. Arousal Measures related to arousal such as heart rate and skin conductance are low among criminals. Body type Hormones Biochemical markers Family Sociology of law. The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies. Some see sociology of law as belonging "necessarily" to the field of sociology whilst others tend to consider it a field of research caught up between the disciplines of law and sociology. Still others regard it neither as a sub-discipline of sociology nor as a branch of legal studies but as a field of research on its own right within the broader social science tradition.
Sociology of law also benefits from and occasionally draws on research conducted within other fields such as comparative law, critical legal studies, jurisprudence, legal theory, law and economics and law and literature. Intellectual origins The roots of the sociology of law can be traced back to the works of sociologists and jurists of the turn of the previous century. Theodor Geiger developed a close-knit analysis of the Marxist theory of law. Lawrence M. Victimology. Victimology is the study of victimization, including the relationships between victims and offenders, the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system — that is, the police and courts, and corrections officials — and the connections between victims and other social groups and institutions, such as the media, businesses, and social movements. Victimology is however not restricted to the study of victims of crime alone but may include other forms of human rights violations.
 Victim of a crime In criminology and criminal law, a victim of a crime is an identifiable person who has been harmed individually and directly by the perpetrator, rather than by society as a whole. However, this may not always be the case, as with victims of white collar crime, who may not be clearly identifiable or directly linked to crime against a particular individual. Consequences of crimes Victims may experience the following psychological reactions: Penal couple
Penology. Penology (from the Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences. The Oxford English Dictionary defines penology as "the study of the punishment of crime and prison management", and in this sense it is equivalent with corrections. Penology is concerned with the effectiveness of those social processes devised and adopted for the prevention of crime, via the repression or inhibition of criminal intent via the fear of punishment.
The study of penology therefore deals with the treatment of prisoners and the subsequent rehabilitation of convicted criminals. History See also References Further reading Anthropological criminology. History The physiognomist Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741–1801) was one of the first to suggest a link between facial figures and crime. Victor Hugo referred to his work in Les Misérables, about what he would have said about Thénardier's face.
Franz Joseph Gall then developed in 1810 his work on craniology, in which he alleged that crime was one of the behaviors organically controlled by a specific area of the brain. The philosopher Jacob Fries (1773–1843) also suggested a link between crime and physical appearance when he published a criminal anthropology handbook in 1820. The Italian school However, criminal anthropology per se refers to the Italian school of criminology, whose most famous member was Cesare Lombroso. The Italian criminologists rejected the Classical school of criminology (Cesare Beccaria, Jeremy Bentham) who had developed a "rational choice theory" before the letter. Mugshot and fingerprinting Social Darwinism The theory Rejection Deviance (sociology) Norms are rules and expectations by which members of society are conventionally guided. Deviance is an absence of conformity to these norms. Social norms differ from culture to culture.
For example, a deviant act can be committed in one society that breaks a social norm there, but may be normal for another society. Viewing deviance as a violation of social norms, sociologists have characterized it as "any thought, feeling, or action that members of a social group judge to be a violation of their values or rules "or group" conduct, that violates definitions of appropriate and inappropriate conduct shared by the members of a social system. The departure of certain types of behavior from the norms of a particular society at a particular time and "violation of certain types of group norms where behavior is in a disapproved direction and of sufficient degree to exceed the tolerance limit of the community. "Deviance affirms cultural values and norms.
Robert K. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. International Crime Victims Survey. Why victims surveys Reliable Crime statistics are hard to come by. Crimes recorded by the police and other authorities are a main source of information but have their limitations, these limitations are discussed in the Crime statistics article. An alternative is a victimisation survey (or victim study) in which a random sample of the population is asked about their experiences with crime and victimisation. Many countries have such surveys. International comparison Attempts to use the data from these national surveys for international comparison have failed. A group of European criminologists (Jan van Dijk, Dutch Ministry of Justice - Pat Mayhew, British Home Office - Martin Killias, Lausanne University) started an international victimisation study with the sole purpose to generate international comparative crime and victimisation data.
To date More than 70 countries have participated at least once over the years. Organisation Near future Methodology Cesare Lombroso. Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; Italian: [ˈtʃɛzare lombˈroso]; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology. Lombroso rejected the established Classical School, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature.
Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, early eugenics, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage, or atavistic. Life Concept of criminal atavism Lombroso's general theory suggested that criminals are distinguished from noncriminals by multiple physical anomalies.
Besides the "born criminal", Lombroso also described "criminaloids", or occasional criminals, criminals by passion, moral imbeciles, and criminal epileptics. Psychiatric art Concentric zone model. Concentric zone model Commuter zone Residential zone Working class zone Factory zone The Concentric zone model also known as the Burgess model or the CCD model is one of the earliest theoretical models to explain urban social structures. It was created by sociologist Ernest Burgess in 1923.  The model Based on human ecology theories done by Burgess and applied on Chicago, it was the first to give the explanation of distribution of social groups within urban areas.
The zones identified are: The center was the CBDThe transition zone of mixed residential and commercial uses or the Zone of TransitionWorking class residential homes (inner suburbs), in later decades called inner city or Zone of independent working men's homeBetter quality middle-class homes (Outer Suburbs) or Zone of better HousingCommuters zone The model is more detailed than the traditional down-mid-uptown divide by which downtown is the CBD, uptown the affluent residential outer ring, and midtown in between. See also Biosocial criminology. Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors.
While contemporary criminology has been dominated by sociological theories, biosocial criminology also recognizes the potential contributions of fields such as genetics, neuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology. Approaches Environment Environment has a significant effect on genetic expression. Genes and environments operating in tandem (interacting) were required to produce significant antisocial behavior, while neither was powerful enough to produce it independent of the other. Genetics One approach to studying the role of genetics for crime is to calculate the heritability coefficient, which describes the proportion of the variance that is due to actualized genetic effects for some trait in a given population in a specific environment at a specific time. Neurophysiology Specific forms
Chicago school (sociology) In sociology and later criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) was the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. While involving scholars at several Chicago area universities, the term is often used interchangeably to refer to the University of Chicago's sociology department—one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious.
Following World War II, a "Second Chicago School" arose whose members used symbolic interactionism combined with methods of field research, to create a new body of work. This was one of the first institutions to use quantitative methods in criminology. The Chicago School is best known for its urban sociology and for the development of the symbolic interactionist approach.
The work of Frederic E. Culture contact and conflict. Differential association. In criminology, Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior.
Differential association predicts that an individual will choose the criminal path when the balance of definitions for law-breaking exceeds those for law-abiding. This tendency will be reinforced if social association provides active people in the person's life. Earlier in life the individual comes under the influence of those of high status within that group, the more likely the individual to follow in their footsteps.
This does not deny that there may be practical motives for crime. Sutherland's Theory of Differential Association The principles of Sutherland's Theory of Differential Association key points: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Explanation An important quality of differential association theory concerns the frequency and intensity of interaction. Italian school of criminology. The Italian school of criminology was founded at the end of the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) and two of his Italian disciples, Enrico Ferri (1856–1929) and Raffaele Garofalo (1851–1934). Lombroso's conception of the "atavistic born criminal" The central idea of Lombroso's work came to him as he autopsied the body of a notorious Italian criminal named Giuseppe Villela.
As he contemplated Villela's skull, he noted that certain characteristics of it (specifically, a depression on the occiput that he named the median occipital fossa) reminded him of the skulls of "inferior races" and "the lower types of apes, rodents, and birds". The term Lombroso used to describe the appearance of organisms resembling ancestral (prehuman) forms of life is atavism. Typology of criminals In addition to the "atavistic born criminal", Lombroso identified two other types: the "insane criminal", and the "criminaloid". Ferri's penology Garofalo's "natural" definition of crime Positivist school.