Plasmas. Plasmas exist in a wide range of settings and varieties.
Most stars are made up of plasma. The Aurora Borealis is a plasma light show in our upper atmosphere caused by the bombardment from space of the solar wind - another kind of plasma. Lightning bolts are visible plasma trails left by the passage of the electric current that formed it. As stated in the definition, plasma is a gaseous type of state where the matter making the plasma consists of electrically neutral and charged particles. Overall, plasma is electrically neutral having as many positive ions as free electrons distributed through it. Accelerating electrons through ordinary gas can create plasma, in just the way they create lightning. If you do it in a very low pressure gas - something like the interior of an incandescent light bulb - you usually just get a kind of diffuse glow. How does a Plasma Globe Work? ChemThink.
Chemistry Virtual Textbook. A reference text for General Chemistry Stephen Lower Simon Fraser University.
MSDS ARCHIVE FOR THE CNTECH LABORATORIES. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) at CNTech Etchants, adhesives, plating baths, etc. Safety Information All chemicals at CNTech can be idenrified by their CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) Registry Number. This is a unique identifier that tells you, for example, that acetone and dimethyl ketone are actually the same substance. From a safety and inventory perspective, this is a terrific idea. The Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) has a safety manual available on the Web. More information is available from the SRC Safety Officer, Bruce Neumann All chemicals at CNTech should be labeled with a hazard code chart, like the one shown below.
Blue – Health Red – Flammability Yellow – Reactivity White – Special precautions For a more detailed explanation of these hazard codes, start here . Other Reference Materials. Untitled. Appearance: white crystalline powder.Warning!
Causes severe eye irritation. Causes skin and respiratory tract irritation. May be harmful if swallowed. May cause central nervous system effects. Light sensitive. Potential Health Effects Eye: Causes severe eye irritation. RTECS#: CAS# 69-72-7: VO0525000 LD50/LC50:CAS# 69-72-7: Draize test, rabbit, eye: 100 mg Severe; Draize test, rabbit, skin: 500 mg/24H Mild; Inhalation, rat: LC50 = >900 mg/m3/1H; Oral, mouse: LD50 = 480 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD50 = 1300 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 891 mg/kg; Skin, rabbit: LD50 = >10 gm/kg; Skin, rat: LD50 = >2 gm/kg; Carcinogenicity:CAS# 69-72-7: Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65. Epidemiology: No information available. Welcome to ChemWeb. NMR Knowledge Base - The NMR Resource.
Radiation dosages. UNC Chemistry Fundamentals. An Interactive Educational Exercise Because of special formatting tags needed to display exponents, this site is best viewed with Netscape 3.0 or higher.
If needed, use the link under Useful Materials to download Netscape. Online chemical modeling environment (OCHEM): web platform for data storage, model development and publishing of chemical information. To create a new QSAR model in OCHEM the user must prepare the training and (optional) validation sets, configure the preprocessing of molecules (standardization and 3D optimization), choose and configure the molecular descriptors and the machine learning method, select the validation protocol (N-fold cross-validation or bagging) and, when the model has been calculated, review the predictive statistics and save or discard the model.
The following sections describe each of the aforementioned steps in detail. Training and validation sets, machine learning method and validation Training and validation datasets. One of the most important steps in model development is the preparation of input data, i.e., a training set that contains experimentally measured values of the predicted property. The property that will be predicted by the model is identified automatically based on the contents of the training set. Machine learning method. Validation of models. Build an Atom. Conductive Polymers. Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates Conductive Polymers Play the Conductive Valley Game About the game Find out what you can use conductive polymers for in the future by furnishing a house!
Bond Energy. If we pass a direct electric current through water containing enough ions to make it a good electrical conductor, it will break down into its constituents: hydrogen and oxygen.
Both hydrogen and oxygen gas exist as diatomic molecules so the equation for this chemical reaction is The prefixes tell us that it takes 2 molecules of water to produce one molecule of oxygen and two molecules of hydrogen. If we decompose 36 grams of water (2 moles), we produce 2 moles of hydrogen gas (4 g) and one mole of oxygen gas (32 g). In this reaction, covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom in water have been broken and new bonds — between the hydrogen atoms in H2 and the oxygen atoms in O2 — have been formed.
This reaction requires the input of energy (electrical in this case). Bond Energy There are many forms of energy: electrical mechanical chemical but all forms are ultimately converted into heat. Jp962922n_size-optical_spec.pdf (application/pdf Object)