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Battle of the Milvian Bridge , Raphael , Vatican Rooms. The artist depicted the troops of Constantine bearing the labarum . Constantinian shift is a term used by Anabaptist and Post-Christendom theologians to describe the political and theological aspects of the 4th-century process of Constantine's legalization of Christianity . [ 1 ] The term was popularized by the Mennonite theologian John H. Yoder . [ 2 ] [ edit ] Historical context
Antichristus , a woodcut by Lucas Cranach of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a generously contributing ruler
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The Renaissance ( UK / r ɨ ˈ n eɪ s ən s / , US / ˈ r ɛ n ɨ s ɑː n s / , French pronunciation: [ʁənɛsɑ̃ːs] , from French : Renaissance "re-birth", Italian : Rinascimento , from rinascere "to be reborn") [ 1 ] was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. As a cultural movement, it encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch , the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform.
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther , John Calvin and other early Protestants . It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses . The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals, leadership and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church , led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. The Reformation was precipitated by earlier events within Europe , such as the Black Death and the Western Schism , which eroded people's faith in the Catholic Church and the Papacy that governed it. This, as well as many other factors, such as spread of Renaissance ideas and inventions, such as the invention of the printing press , and the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire , contributed to the creation of Protestantism. [ page needed ] [ page needed ]
The Calvinist-Arminian debate is best known as a dispute between Dutch Protestants in the early 17th century. The theological points remain at issue as the basis of current disagreements amongst some Protestants, particularly evangelicals . These debates go back in some form to Augustine of Hippo 's battle with the Pelagians in the 5th century on theological cornerstones of soteriology , including depravity , predestination , and atonement . [ edit ] Quinquarticular Controversy The Quinquarticular Controversy is a term used to refer to the purely theological Calvinist-Arminian clashes of the period 1609 to 1618, a time in which the debate had serious political overtones in the Netherlands. This controversy is the one that was addressed by the Dutch Reformed churches at the Synod of Dort in 1618–1619, a meeting to which Protestant representatives from Reformed churches in other countries were invited.