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20th Century History. Human Experimentation and The Development of Ethics. Eugenics. Spices and world history. Spice Islands most commonly refer to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), and often specifically to the small volcanic Banda Islands, once the only source of mace and nutmeg. The native Bandanese people traded spices with other Asian nations, such as China, since at least the time of the Roman Empire. With the rise of Islam, Muslim traders dominated the trade. One ancient Arabic source appears to know the location of the islands, describing them as fifteen days' sail East from the 'island of Jaba' - presumably Java — but direct evidence of Islam in the archipelago occurs only in the late 1300s, as China's interest in regional maritime dominance waned. With Arabic traders came not just Islam, but a new technique of social organization, the sultanate, which replaced local councils of rich men (orang kaya) on the more important islands, and proved more effective in dealing with outsiders.

Capitalism and the Dutch East India Company: Crash Course World History 229. Loki-L comments on Americapox: The Missing Plague - CGPGrey. New York destroyed a village full of African-American landowners to create Central Park. Drew Reed is CityMetric's occasional western hemisphere correspondent. In this three-part series, he takes an in-depth look at Boston's failed bid for the 2024 summer Olympics - and talks to some of the community groups that helped to bring it down. You can read part one here.

On 8 January 2015, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) announced that it was backing Boston’s bid to host the 2024 summer Olympics. It was a popular decision in the city. Polls showed the Olympics had a 51 per cent favourable rating among Bostonians, and only a 33 per cent unfavourable rating. Many believed in the promise of improved infrastructure and housing. Boston’s political class was in high spirits for the next two months. Olympic committee brass was also pleased. For the organisers of the No Boston 2024 campaign group, it was a difficult moment. Boston 2024 did concede a bit of democratic participation. Nevertheless, it was difficult for organisers to maintain their resolve.

Trouble at the top. Korematsu v. United States. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944),[1] was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship. In a 6–3 decision, the Court sided with the government,[2] ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional. Six of eight Roosevelt appointees sided with Roosevelt. The lone Republican appointee, Owen Roberts, dissented. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred Korematsu's individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent.

The decision in Korematsu v. The Korematsu decision has not been explicitly overturned, although in 2011 the Department of Justice filed official notice,[4] conceding that it was in error, thus erasing the case's value as precedent for interning citizens. §Introduction[edit] Japanese American Internment Center. Conflict in Israel and Palestine: Crash Course World History 223.

6 'Harmless' Fads That Caused Widespread Destruction. #3. The Worldwide Love of Jeans Dyes China Blue Ciaran Griffin/Stockbyte/Getty Images The market for denim is absurd -- in 2006, over $15 billion was spent on jeans alone, and that's not even factoring in jackets, skirts, accessories, or acid wash (which, while technically just a style of jeans, presumably occupies its own wedge on the pie chart).

Like many commodities, denim production is outsourced to China -- specifically Xintang, which makes around 200 million pairs of jeans every year. Imaginechina via AP ImagesBlue water is normally a good thing. You see, the waste runoff from denim factories contains heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and selenium. Greenpeace"You're welcome. " #2. Jupiterimages/ ImagesJudging by this article, there's no possible way for this to backfire on us."Hmmm ... fruity, with a mild undercurrent of psychosis. " #1. Jupiterimages/Polka Dot/Getty Images Do you have an idea in mind that would make a great article? General Motors streetcar conspiracy. The General Motors streetcar conspiracy (also known as the Great American streetcar scandal) refers to allegations and convictions in relation to a program by General Motors (GM) and other companies who purchased and then dismantled streetcar and electric train systems in many cities in the United States. Some suggest that this program played a key role in the decline of public transit in cities across the United States; notably Edwin J.

Quinby, who first drew attention to the program in 1946, and then Bradford C. Snell, an anti-trust attorney for the United States Senate whose controversial 1974 testimony to a Senate inquiry brought the issue to national awareness. History[edit] Background[edit] At one time, nearly every city in the U.S. with a population over 10,000 had at least one streetcar company; nearly all were privately owned and were later dismantled.

Early years[edit] In 1922, GM President and CEO Alfred P. The Omnibus Corporation was formed in 1926 by John D. Conversion[edit] 5 B.S. Rumors That Created The Modern World. Much of human history is nothing more than a bunch of people falling for some bullshit a charismatic figure made up on the fly. If you want to trick the masses into war (or anything else), you just have to find out what they want to believe and feed it to them. And the sad part? It doesn't even have to be a good lie. If you want proof, just look at some of the ridiculous bullshit that has altered the course of history ... #5. A Bullshit Doomsday Prediction Sets Off The Third Crusade Ig0rZh/iStock/Getty Images In 1184, an official looking letter made the rounds amongst Pope Clement III and other European notables.

Cristian Cortes/iStock/Getty Images"Yup, that's God's handwriting all right. The grim letter described the imminent arrival of an alignment of the planets that would spell doom in the sky. Now, when we say the letter was bullshit, we don't just mean the apocalypse stuff (if you're not familiar with the time period, we should note here that the apocalypse did not in fact occur). 5 Dark Moments In History Are Now Shockingly Possible Again. I know, I know ... all this talk about Donald Trump is pointless. He'll never get elected, and even if he does, all of the crazy things he's suggesting could never actually happen in the United States. We were supposed to talk about that one this week's Unpopular Opinion podcast ... ... where I'm joined by comics Josh Denny and Laura Crawford and Cracked editor Josh Sargent, but we got a bit off track.

So allow me to explain it in this column here today instead. Here are five insane things Donald Trump wants to do that the United States has already tried. #5. Mass Deportation Of Mexican Immigrants = Operation Wetback Wikipedia One of the key aspects of Trump's plans to ruin this country involves the mass deportation of undocumented immigrants back to Mexico. See, despite all the hate and harsh words that get thrown around in relation to the subject of immigration from Mexico, there was a time when we, as a country, wanted as much of that as we could get. What was that? #4. . #3. 5 Things You Say Often With Horrible Historical Origins |

Everybody can think of a recent slang term they wish had never been added to the language. (Selfie? On fleek? Totes?) The reality though is that almost all language started from that sort of thing. Over time, the original meaning gets forgotten, along with any stigma. That's why it's fascinating to trace the origins of everyday phrases back and find out just how many of them were not only slang, but terms that referenced unspeakable horror. . #5. Kerry Mills How People Use It: An easy or simple task, a battle against an enemy that won't put up much resistance.

"Most people think dissolving a body in acid is horrible and gruesome, but for Brian, it's a cakewalk. " Ivan Bliznetsov/E+/Getty Images Plus, he has his Breaking Bad Halloween costume all set. What It Originally Meant: A sadistic old-timey dancing game for slaves. Cakewalks were essentially dance-offs for a chance of winning, yes, a cake. Library of CongressAnd you complain when your company has mandatory trust fall exercises. A. . #4. . #3. What are some of the main Anthropological criticisms of Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs and Steel? : AskAnthropology.

This Book Will Make You Want a Banker's Point of View of Game of Thrones. The Tulsa Race Riot - Tulsa Historical Society & MuseumTulsa Historical Society & Museum. On the morning of May 30, 1921, a young black man named Dick Rowland was riding in the elevator in the Drexel Building at Third and Main with a woman named Sarah Page. The details of what followed vary from person to person, and accounts of the incident circulated among the city’s white community during the day and became more exaggerated with each telling.

Tulsa police arrested Rowland the following day and began an investigation. An inflammatory report in the May 31 edition of the Tulsa Tribune spurred a confrontation between black and white armed mobs around the courthouse where the sheriff and his men had barricaded the top floor to protect Rowland. Shots were fired and the outnumbered blacks began retreating to the Greenwood Avenue business district. In the early morning hours of June 1, 1921, Black Tulsa was looted and burned by white rioters. Twenty-four hours after the violence erupted, it ceased. Resources for further research: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 by I. By Dr. Killed For Taking Part In 'Everybody's Fight' : Code Switch. For the past few months, NPR has been commemorating the monumental summer of 1963 by looking at watershed moments in the civil rights movement.

In this three-part series, Karen Grigsby Bates talks with the children of civil rights leaders who lost their lives in the battle for racial equality. Sally Liuzzo-Prado stands in a park dedicated to her mother, Viola Liuzzo, a civil rights activist who was killed in Alabama. J. Carlisle Larsen /WDET hide caption itoggle caption J. Sally Liuzzo-Prado stands in a park dedicated to her mother, Viola Liuzzo, a civil rights activist who was killed in Alabama. J. In an obscure corner of Detroit, there's a battered playground honoring a civil rights martyr.

"It's all tore up and definitely could use at least a paint job," says Sally Liuzzo-Prado. Liuzzo-Prado was 6 when her mother, Viola Liuzzo, was killed by Ku Klux Klan members following a voting rights march in Alabama in 1965. "She called us every night. Led by the Rev. "How long?

Europe's First Farmers Were Shockingly Violent. 5 Horrific Old-Time Realities Your History Book Left Out. Hollywood is good at making the past look like a brutal, violent place -- every medieval adventure features several hundred dudes getting stabbed -- but it also makes it look kind of awesome. The cast of Gladiator and Braveheart appear to live noble, meaningful lives, and there's a reason that nerds like to gather in the park dressed like knights and maidens.

It's like the world back then was more real. None of this cubicle bullshit. But you can actually make yourself feel a whole lot better about your life today merely by reminding yourself of a few key things. . #5. Andreas F. What's the worst thing you've ever found in a toilet? What, no open flames? Presse03/WikimediaThe average Roman had three assholes.

Also, your butt might literally catch fire, what with rampant methane fumes that could very well result in flames erupting over your delicate taint. BBCSay what you will about your neighbors; they never took you to court over taco night. #4. Did you have acne as a teenager? #3. Understanding Boko Haram. Truck system. A truck system is an arrangement in which employees are paid in commodities or some currency substitute (such as vouchers or token coins, called in some dialects scrip or chit) rather than with standard currency. This limits employees' ability to choose how to spend their earnings—generally to the benefit of the employer. As an example, company scrip might be usable only for the purchase of goods at a company-owned store, where prices are set artificially high. The practice has been widely criticized as exploitative because there is no competition to lower prices. Legislation to curtail it, part of the larger field of labour law and employment standards, exists in many countries (for example, the British Truck Acts).

Terminology[edit] Britain[edit] While this system had long existed in many parts of the world, it became widespread in the 18th and 19th century Britain. In Britain the truck system was sometimes referred to as the Tommy system. See also[edit] References[edit] Notes Bibliography. Congo and Africa's World War: Crash Course World History 221. The Real Story Behind the 1914 Christmas Truce in World War I. Coal Strike of 1902. The Coal Strike of 1902, also known as the Anthracite Coal Strike,[1][2] was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union.

The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities (homes and apartments were heated with anthracite or "hard" coal because it had higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal). President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator. The 1899 and 1900 strikes[edit] The Anthracite Coal Strike[edit] Miner strikes the owner; 1902 Judge cartoon J.P. Was Britain's WWI Blockade The First Atrocity Of The 20th Century?

Rwandan Genocide. The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority. During the approximate 100-day period from April 7, 1994, to mid-July, an estimated 500,000–1,000,000 Rwandans were killed,[1] constituting as much as 20% of the country's total population and 70% of the Tutsi then living in Rwanda. The genocide was planned by members of the core political elite known as the akazu, many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government. Perpetrators came from the ranks of the Rwandan army, the National Police (gendarmerie), government-backed militias including the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi, and the Hutu civilian population. The genocide had a lasting and profound impact on Rwanda and its neighboring countries. §Background[edit] §Pre-colonial kingdoms and origins of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa[edit] The population coalesced, first into clans (ubwoko), and then, by 1700, into around eight kingdoms.

§Colonial era[edit]