AVS Clinical Pathology Images - Vet Surgeon. 183817) Clinicians ultimate guide to drug therapy. FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE THERAPY. FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE THERAPY( 1. What is plasma osmolality? Plasma osmolality is a function of the ratio of body solute to body water; it is regulated by changes in water balance. Water intake is derived primarily from three sources: Ingested water, water contained in food, and water produced from oxidation of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Water losses occur in the urine and stool, as well as evaporation from the skin and respiratory tract. Alterations in plasma osmolality of as little as 1% - 2% are sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. 2. Effective circulating volume is defined as that part of the extracellular fluid (ECF) that is in the vascular space and effectively perfusing tissues. 3. Three major effectors alter effective circulating volume: 1) The sympathetic nervous system, 2) angiotensin II, and 3) renal sodium excretion. 4. 5. 6. Hypovolemia causes an increase in renin secretion. 7. TABLE 1. 8. 9. 10. Feline Emergency Drugs--KGS. Emergency Drug Dosages --KGS.