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[ Pr p12 ] §1. Introduction.
Book I. Introduction , Thales , Solon , Chilon , Pittacus , Bias , Cleobulus , Periander , Anacharsis, the Scythian , Myson , Epimenides , Pherecydes . Book II. Anaximander , Anaximenes , Anaxagoras , Archelaus , Socrates , Xenophon , Aeschines , Aristippus , Phaedo , Euclides , Stilpo , Crito , Simon , Glaucon , Simmias , Cebes , Menedemus . Book III.
I. ZENO was a native of Elea. Apollodorus, in his Chronicles, says that he was by nature the son of Teleutagoras, but by adoption the son of Parmenides. II. Timon speaks thus of him and Melissus:--
This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in philosophy . Clearly, unsolved philosophical problems exist in the lay sense (e.g. " What is the meaning of life? ", " Where did we come from? ", " What is reality?
Ludwik Fleck (July 11, 1896 – July 5, 1961) was a Polish Israeli medical doctor and biologist who developed in the 1930s the concept of Denkkollektiv (or thought collectives ). This concept is important in philosophy of science and sociology of science in that it helps explain how scientific ideas change over time, similar to Thomas Kuhn 's later notion of paradigm shift or Foucault 's episteme . Fleck wrote that the development of truth in scientific research was an unattainable ideal as different researchers were locked in thought collectives (or thought-styles). He felt that the development of scientific insights was not unidirectional and does not consist of just accumulating new pieces of information, but also in overthrowing the old ones.
Willard Van Orman Quine Originally published in The Philosophical Review 60 (1951): 20-43. Reprinted in W.V.O. Quine, From a Logical Point of View (Harvard University Press, 1953; second, revised, edition 1961), with the following alterations: "The version printed here diverges from the original in footnotes and in other minor respects: §§1 and 6 have been abridged where they encroach on the preceding essay ["On What There Is"], and §§3-4 have been expanded at points." Except for minor changes, additions and deletions are indicated in interspersed tables. I wish to thank Torstein Lindaas for bringing to my attention the need to distinguish more carefully the 1951 and the 1961 versions.
by G W Leibniz I: Concerning the divine perfection and that God does everything in the most desirable way II: Against those who hold that there is in the works of God no goodness, or that the principles of goodness and beauty are arbitrary III: Against those who think that God might have made things better than he has
THIS treatise on Elementary Philosophy, which first appeared in the year 1813, when it procured for me the degree of doctor, afterwards became the substructure for the whole of my system. It cannot, therefore, be allowed to remain out of print, as has been the case, without my knowledge, for the last four years. On the other hand, to send a juvenile work like this once more into the world with all its faults and blemishes, seemed to me unjustifiable.
For more on Einstein and Spinoza see this page . Einstein's Poem About Spinoza From Jammer , p. 43; the complete poem is available in German in the Appendix of the book.