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Cargo cult science refers to practices that have the semblance of being scientific , but do not in fact follow the scientific method . [ 1 ] The term was first used by the physicist Richard Feynman during his commencement address at the California Institute of Technology , United States , in 1974. Cargo cults —the religious practice that has appeared in many traditional tribal societies in the wake of interaction with technologically advanced cultures—focus on obtaining the material wealth (the "cargo") of the advanced culture by building mock aircraft, landing strips, and the like. [ edit ] Feynman's speech The speech is reproduced in the book Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!
Neuro-linguistic programming ( NLP ) is an approach to communication , personal development , and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, USA in the 1970s. The title asserts a connection between the neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic"), and behavioural patterns learned through experience ("programming") that proponents speculate can be changed to achieve specific goals in life. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The balance of scientific evidence reveals NLP to be a largely discredited pseudoscience . Scientific reviews show it contains numerous factual errors, [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and fails to produce the results asserted by proponents. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] According to Clinical Psychologist Grant Devilly (2005), [ 7 ] NLP has had a consequent decline in prevalence since the 1970s.