Subject 10

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Where the fans make it happen! Crowdfunding the commons. Crowd funding. Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet.[1] One early-stage equity expert described it as “the practice of raising funds from two or more people over the internet towards a common Service, Project, Product, Investment, Cause, and Experience, or SPPICE.”[2] The crowdfunding model is fueled by three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded; individuals or groups who support the idea; and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea.[3] In 2013, the crowdfunding industry grew to be over $5.1 billion worldwide.[4] History[edit] Types[edit] The Crowdfunding Centre's May 2014 report identified the existence of two primary types of crowdfunding: Rewards-based[edit] Equity[edit] Debt-based[edit] Litigation[edit] Charity[edit] Role of the crowd[edit] Crowdfunding platforms[edit] Origins[edit] Press.

Crowd funding

Crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.[1] While this definition from Merriam Webster is valid, a more specific definition is heavily debated.[2] The process of crowdsourcing is often used to subdivide tedious work[3] and has occurred successfully offline−see the examples below.


It combines the efforts of numerous self-identified volunteers or part-time workers, where each contributor of their own initiative adds a small portion to the greater result. The term "crowdsourcing" is a portmanteau of "crowd" and "outsourcing"; it is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work comes from an undefined public rather than being commissioned from a specific, named group. Definitions[edit] In a February 1, 2008 article, Daren C. Theoretical Perspectives[edit] The Constructs of Crowd Capital Theory G. What are the commons? The commons are a new way of expressing a very old idea: that some things belong to everyone and as a whole, they comprise a set of resources that should be actively protected and managed.

What are the commons?

It is made up of things we inherit or create together and that we hope to leave to future generations as a legacy. The "procumún" includes natural resources like the air, water, oceans, wildlife, deserts and also shared "assets" such as the Internet, radio-electric space used for broadcasts, numbers, and common ground. It obviously includes a great many social creations: libraries, parks, public spaces, in addition to scientific research, creative works, and the public knowledge we have amassed over centuries. Antonio Lafuente. The Commons - Main index.

The Factory of the Common. The commons. Commons refers to the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately.[1][dead link] The resources held in common can include everything from natural resources and common land to software.[2] The commons contains public property and private property, over which people have certain traditional rights. When commonly held property is transformed into private property this process alternatively is termed "enclosure" or more commonly, "privatization. " A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner.[3] Concepts[edit] The commons were traditionally defined as the elements of the environment - forests, atmosphere, rivers, fisheries or grazing land - that are shared, used and enjoyed by all.

Today, the commons are also understood within a cultural sphere.