Crowdfunding (alternately crowd financing, equity crowdfunding, crowd equity, crowd-sourced fundraising) is the collective effort of individuals who network and pool their money, usually via the Internet, to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations. Crowdfunding is used in support of a wide variety of activities, including disaster relief, citizen journalism, support of artists by fans, political campaigns, startup company funding, motion picture promotion, free software development, inventions development, scientific research, and civic projects. Crowdfunding can also refer to the funding of a company by selling small amounts of equity to many investors.
Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. This process is often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, and can also occur offline. It combines the efforts of numerous self-identified volunteers or part-time workers, where each contributor of their own initiative adds a small portion to the greater result. Crowdsourcing is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work comes from an undefined public rather than being commissioned from a specific, named group.
The commons are a new way of expressing a very old idea: that some things belong to everyone and as a whole, they comprise a set of resources that should be actively protected and managed. It is made up of things we inherit or create together and that we hope to leave to future generations as a legacy. The "procumún" includes natural resources like the air, water, oceans, wildlife, deserts and also shared "assets" such as the Internet, radio-electric space used for broadcasts, numbers, and common ground. It obviously includes a great many social creations: libraries, parks, public spaces, in addition to scientific research, creative works, and the public knowledge we have amassed over centuries. Antonio Lafuente.
Commons refers to the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.