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Subject 10

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Where the fans make it happen! Goteo.org Crowdfunding the commons. Crowd funding. Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet.[1] One early-stage equity expert described it as “the practice of raising funds from two or more people over the internet towards a common Service, Project, Product, Investment, Cause, and Experience, or SPPICE.”[2] The crowdfunding model is fueled by three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded; individuals or groups who support the idea; and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea.[3] In 2013, the crowdfunding industry grew to be over $5.1 billion worldwide.[4] History[edit] Types[edit] The Crowdfunding Centre's May 2014 report identified the existence of two primary types of crowdfunding: Rewards-based[edit]

Crowd funding

Crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.[1] While this definition from Merriam Webster is valid, a more specific definition is heavily debated.[2] The process of crowdsourcing is often used to subdivide tedious work[3] and has occurred successfully offline−see the examples below.

Crowdsourcing

It combines the efforts of numerous self-identified volunteers or part-time workers, where each contributor of their own initiative adds a small portion to the greater result. The term "crowdsourcing" is a portmanteau of "crowd" and "outsourcing"; it is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work comes from an undefined public rather than being commissioned from a specific, named group. Definitions[edit] In a February 1, 2008 article, Daren C. Historical examples[edit] Timeline of major events[edit] Modern methods[edit] G. What are the commons? The Commons - Main index. The Factory of the Common.

The commons. This article is about the term "commons" in political economics.

The commons

It is not to be confused with common land. The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Definition and modern use[edit] The definition from the Digital Library of the Commons is; "the commons is a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal interest".[1] The term "commons" derives from the traditional English legal term for common land, which are also known as "commons", and was popularised in the modern sense as a shared resource term by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in an influential 1968 article called The Tragedy of the Commons.

Types of commons[edit] Environmental[edit] The examples below illustrate types of environmental commons. European land use[edit] Main article: Common land Mongolian grasslands[edit]