Subject 10

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Where the fans make it happen! Crowdfunding the commons. Crowd funding. Crowdfunding is the collection of finance to sustain an initiative from a large pool of backers—the "crowd"—usually made online by means of a web platform.

Crowd funding

The initiative could be a nonprofit campaign (e.g. to raise funds for a school or social service organization), a political campaign (to support a candidate or political party), a philanthropic campaign (e.g. for emergency funds for an ill person or to produce an emerging artist), a commercial campaign (e.g. to create and sell a new product) or a financing campaign for a start-up company. Crowdfunding has its origins in the concept of crowdsourcing, which is the broader concept of an individual reaching a goal by receiving and leveraging small contributions from many parties. Crowdfunding models involve a variety of participants.[4] They include the people or organizations that propose the ideas and/or projects to be funded, and the crowd of people who support the proposals. History[edit] Types of Crowdfunding[edit] Pros and cons[edit] Crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.[1] This process is often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, and can also occur offline.[2] It combines the efforts of numerous self-identified volunteers or part-time workers, where each contributor of their own initiative adds a small portion to the greater result.


The term "crowdsourcing" is a portmanteau of "crowd" and "outsourcing"; it is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work comes from an undefined public rather than being commissioned from a specific, named group. Definitions[edit] In a February 1, 2008 article, Daren C. Brabham defined "crowdsourcing" as an "online, distributed problem-solving and production model. Crowdsourcers are primarily motivated by its benefits. Predecessors[edit] What are the commons? The commons are a new way of expressing a very old idea: that some things belong to everyone and as a whole, they comprise a set of resources that should be actively protected and managed.

What are the commons?

It is made up of things we inherit or create together and that we hope to leave to future generations as a legacy. The "procumún" includes natural resources like the air, water, oceans, wildlife, deserts and also shared "assets" such as the Internet, radio-electric space used for broadcasts, numbers, and common ground. It obviously includes a great many social creations: libraries, parks, public spaces, in addition to scientific research, creative works, and the public knowledge we have amassed over centuries. Antonio Lafuente. The Commons - Main index.

The Factory of the Common. The commons. Commons refers to the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately.[1][dead link] The resources held in common can include everything from natural resources and common land to software.[2] The commons contains public property and private property, over which people have certain traditional rights. When commonly held property is transformed into private property this process alternatively is termed "enclosure" or more commonly, "privatization. " A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner.[3] Concepts[edit] The commons were traditionally defined as the elements of the environment - forests, atmosphere, rivers, fisheries or grazing land - that are shared, used and enjoyed by all.

Today, the commons are also understood within a cultural sphere. Caring for the commons[edit] Notes[edit]