Crowd funding or crowdfunding (alternately crowd financing , equity crowdfunding , or hyper funding ) describes the collective effort of individuals who network and pool their money, usually via the Internet , to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Crowdfunding is used in support of a wide variety of activities, including disaster relief , citizen journalism , support of artists by fans, political campaigns, startup company funding, [ 3 ] motion picture promotion, [ 4 ] free software development, inventions development, scientific research, [ 5 ] and civic projects. Crowdfunding can also refer to the funding of a company by selling small amounts of equity to many investors.
Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers. Often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, this process can occur both online and offline. [ 1 ] The general concept is to combine the efforts of crowds of volunteers or part-time workers, where each one could contribute a small portion, which adds into a relatively large or significant result. Crowdsourcing is different from an ordinary outsourcing since it is a task or problem that is outsourced to an undefined public rather than to a specific, named group.
The commons are a new way of expressing a very old idea: that some things belong to everyone and as a whole, they comprise a set of resources that should be actively protected and managed. It is made up of things we inherit or create together and that we hope to leave to future generations as a legacy. The "procumún" includes natural resources like the air, water, oceans, wildlife, deserts and also shared "assets" such as the Internet, radio-electric space used for broadcasts, numbers, and common ground. It obviously includes a great many social creations: libraries, parks, public spaces, in addition to scientific research, creative works, and the public knowledge we have amassed over centuries. Antonio Lafuente.
Commons refers to the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.