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Human Physiology/The endocrine system. Introduction To The Endocrine System[edit] The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete hormones within specific organs. Hormones act as "messengers," and are carried by the bloodstream to different cells in the body, which interpret these messages and act on them. It seems like a far fetched idea that a small chemical can enter the bloodstream and cause an action at a distant location in the body.

Yet this occurs in our bodies everyday of our lives. The ability to maintain homeostasis and respond to stimuli is largely due to hormones secreted within the body. The endocrine system provides an electrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to all the organs that control the body metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction. There are two types of hormones secreted in the endocrine system: Steroidal (or lipid based) and non-steroidal, (or protein based) hormones.

Types of Glands[edit] Major endocrine glands. Hormones and Types[edit] BrainHelper.org - Financial Stress: How It Affects You and What You Can Do. Financial Stress: How It Affects You and What You Can Do From Elizabeth Scott, M.S. Break Free From Financial Stress Research has shown that over half of all workers have money problems and that financial stress is linked to health problems like depression.

With congress passing legislation in 2005 that makes it harder to wipe away credit card debt, many Americans are feeling the crunch of financial stress. Anxiety over money can negatively affect health in several ways: Unhealthy Coping Behaviors: People experiencing financial stress can be more likely to numb their anxiety by drinking, smoking, overeating and practicing other unhealthy coping behaviors. This in turn leads to more stress. Less Money For Self-Care: With less money in the budget, people who are already under financial stress tend to cut corners in areas like health care to pay for basic necessities like food.

Unhealthy Emotions: Credit card debt can cause unhealthy emotions that can take a toll on health. How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the f... [Nat Neurosci. 2011. Are low and high number magnitudes proce... [Int J Psychophysiol. 2012. The affective impact of financial skewness on neura... [PLoS One. 2011. Led into temptation? Rewarding brand logos bias the... [PLoS One. 2012. Rick Kahler: your brain's response to financial stress | Financial Awakenings. Bryan flipped on MSNBC to catch the stock market’s closing numbers. It was March 9, 2009. A visibly shaken reporter was telling viewers the Dow Jones had fallen to 6547, its lowest closing in over thirteen years. Retirement accounts had lost trillions of dollars, and many experts expected the market to continue to fall.

Bryan’s heart raced; his hands began sweating. He grabbed the phone and ordered his investment advisor to sell all his investments and move everything to money market funds. Psychologists, investment advisors, and neuroscientists will agree that what Bryan did wasn’t rational. Had Bryan held out and done nothing, his retirement portfolio would have gained $300,000 by the end of the year. Unfortunately, Bryan has a brain that isn’t well equipped to handle complicated financial decisions. Our brains were splendidly designed to handle physical threats. Into high gear to move him out of harm’s way or help him fight for his life. Top 5 Ways to Lower Your Financial Stress" If fear of making the "wrong" choices about your finances has left you mired in indecision, imagine how people who think they have no choice at all must feel.

John Caskey, an economics professor at Swarthmore College, interviewed residents in two of America's poorest communities. "They instead talked about the stress," he said. "In many cases, people didn't save not because they actually couldn't, but because they believed they couldn't" [source: Snyder]. When you're late on the rent and can't keep the utilities on, the idea of opening a savings account may seem as far-fetched as a picnic on the moon; but the truth is that all of us, even the poorest, have financial choices.

Finding those choices may feel impossible: the second you get ahead, you're defeated by relatives needing loans, kids wanting designer sneakers, downsizing, layoffs, unexpected medical expenses and a myriad of other obstacles. Traders’ brains: Rogue hormones. Early Exposure to Stress at Home Affects Girls' Brains, Study Says. MONDAY, Nov. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Girls who are born into families with high levels of stress are more likely to suffer from anxiety and disruptions in brain function as teenagers, new research suggests.

In addition, the researchers found that female babies who lived with stressed mothers had higher levels of a stress hormone known as cortisol as preschoolers. And the girls with those higher cortisol levels were more likely to have less effective wiring in their brains between areas that regulate emotion. Males, however, didn't seem to be affected by these issues, the study authors noted in the report, which was published in the Nov. 4 issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience. The researchers looked at nearly 600 children and their families who were enrolled in the Wisconsin Study of Families and Work in 1990 and 1991. The current findings are based on MRI brain scans of 57 participants -- 28 females and 29 males.

More information For more about stress, visit the U.S. A Unique Female Stress Response: Tend-and-Befriend. Is the answer to financial stress found in the bedroom? | Ellen Rogin. Volatile markets make people jittery. According to AARP magazine 76% of boomers are worried about money. When people make fear-based decisions, they are usually poor decisions. So how can you calm down and make sound financial choices in turbulent times? Here are 5 money stress-busting strategies: Turn off the TV and stop checking your computer. The financial media makes money by selling ads. Shelley E. Taylor Lab: Members. Members Director DR. SHELLEY E. TAYLOR received her Ph.D. in psychology from Yale University. Dr. Graduate Students Shimon saphire-bernstein's interests center around the interdisciplinary study of social relationships from a biobehavioral evolutionary perspective. 1) the psychophysiological consequences of stressful interactions and the ameliorating effects of social support, 2) the factors predicting subjective well-being, with a focus on social relationships and underlying cognitive processes, and 3) sex and gender differences in social behavior and in the importance of social relationships to overall health and well-being.

Shimon is also currently exploring his interest in the social psychological processes underpinning recent developments in the study of social networks. JESSICA CHIANG graduated from Smith College with a B.A. in Economics and Psychology. . (1) ethnic differences in the effects of social evaluation on immune functioning lab manager Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr. DR. Dr. Dr. DR. CND: UCLA Study On Friendship Among Women. A landmark UCLA study suggests friendships between women are special. They shape who we are and who we are yet to be. They soothe our tumultuous inner world, fill the emotional gaps in our marriage, and help us remember who we really are.

By the way, they may do even more. Scientists now suspect that hanging out with our friends can actually counteract the kind of stomach-quivering stress most of us experience on a daily basis. A landmark UCLA study suggests that women respond to stress with a cascade of brain chemicals that cause us to make and maintain friendships with other women. It's a stunning find that has turned five decades of stress research---most of it on men---upside down.

Now the researchers suspect that women have a larger behavioral repertoire than just fight or flight; In fact, says Dr. The discovery that women respond to stress differently than men was made in a classic "aha" moment shared by two women scientists who were talking one day in a lab at UCLA. Taylor, S. Stressed Out? It Might Be Messing with Your Memory. Kevin Van Aelst Everyone has had an experience like this one: You're running late for an important meeting, frantically tearing apart the house on a desperate search for the car keys you just put down...somewhere. Or at the other extreme, you spent weeks freaking out over an upcoming presentation only to deliver all the key points with Oscar-accepting eloquence when the day arrives. So what is it that makes a person either go completely blank or perform brilliantly on simple tasks involving memory when feeling stressed?

The answer is complicated, and the best doctors out there are finally teasing out some of the bigger mysteries behind how that three-pound mass of electrochemical soup remembers, or forgets, where the damn keys are. Acute Stress "Your son's test came back, and it's irregular," the doctor told Denise Carleton, then a stay-at-home mom in Mill Valley, California. Initially, she could barely hear the rapid-fire questions the physician blasted at her. At least in men. Age Associated Memory Impairment. Partial Recall: Why Memory Fades with Age. As we age, it becomes harder and harder to recall names, dates—even where we put down our keys. Although we may fear the onset of Alzheimer's, chances are, our recollective powers have dulled simply because we're getting older—and our brains, like our bodies, are no longer in tip-top shape. But what is it that actually causes memory and other cognitive abilities to go soft with senescence?

Previous research has shown that bundles of axons (tubular projections sent out by neurons to signal other nerve cells) wither over time. These conduits, collectively referred to as white matter, help connect different regions of the brain to allow for proper information processing. Now, researchers have found that these white matter pathways erode as we age, impairing communication or "cross talk'' between different brain areas. Andrews-Hanna and other Harvard researchers (along with collaborators at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and Washington University in St. Stress Statistics. Exercise Fuels the Brain's Stress Buffers. Exercise may improve mental health by helping the brain cope better with stress, according to research into the effect of exercise on neurochemicals involved in the body's stress response.

Preliminary evidence suggests that physically active people have lower rates of anxiety and depression than sedentary people. But little work has focused on why that should be. So to determine how exercise might bring about its mental health benefits, some researchers are looking at possible links between exercise and brain chemicals associated with stress, anxiety and depression. So far there's little evidence for the popular theory that exercise causes a rush of endorphins.

Rather, one line of research points to the less familiar neuromodulator norepinephrine, which may help the brain deal with stress more efficiently. Work in animals since the late 1980s has found that exercise increases brain concentrations of norepinephrine in brain regions involved in the body's stress response. Thanks to Rod K. Worrying Well: How Your Brain Can Turn Anxiety and Stress Into Calmness and Confidence.

The Biology of Bubble and Crash. The Human Brain - Stress. Chronic over-secretion of stress hormones adversely affects brain function, especially memory. Too much cortisol can prevent the brain from laying down a new memory, or from accessing already existing memories. The renowned brain researcher, Robert M. Sapolsky, has shown that sustained stress can damage the hippocampus , the part of the limbic brain which is central to learning and memory. The culprits are "glucocorticoids," a class of steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal glands during stress. They are more commonly know as corticosteroids or cortisol .

During a perceived threat, the adrenal glands immediately release adrenalin. Topics. Stressed brain, diseased heart: A review on th... [Int J Cardiol. 2012. Chronic Stress Can Shrink Your Brain. Want something else to worry about? Worry about worrying too much. The evidence is building that chronically elevated stress shrinks your brain! A study in press at the journal asked 103 people about how often they had experienced stressful events, both recently and over the course of their lifetimes, as well as about their chronic ongoing stress, and then took functional magnetic resonance images of their brain . The more stress, the smaller the brain...in several particular cortical areas. • "Cumulative adversity (a combination of recent stressful events and the lifetime total of stressful events) was associated with smaller volume in medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), insular cortex , and subgenual anterior cingulate regions.

" • "Recent stressful life events were associated with smaller volume in two clusters: the medial PFC and the right insula. " And what do all those cortical areas have in common? Stress May Cause The Brain To Become Disconnected. Does stress damage the brain? In the March 1st issue of Biological Psychiatry a paper by Tibor Hajszan and colleagues provides an important new chapter to this question. This issue emerged in the 1990’s as an important clinical question with the observation by J. Douglas Bremner and colleagues, then at the VA National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), that hippocampal volume was reduced in combat veterans with PTSD.

This finding was replicated by several, but not all, groups. In particular, it did not appear that this change was associated with acute PTSD. The importance of this finding was further called into question as a group associated with the Harvard Medical School found that reduced hippocampal volume predicted risk for PTSD among twins, rather than emerging as a consequence of PTSD. “This collection of clinical findings highlights an important limitation of clinical neuroimaging studies.

Stress causes brain shrinkage. A new Yale study shows that stress can reduce brain volume and function, even in otherwise healthy individuals. Researchers from the Yale Stress Center analyzed the effect of experiencing stressful life events. The study, published Jan. 5 in the journal Biological Psychiatry, concluded that stress can decrease the amount of gray matter in the brain and make it more difficult for people to manage stressful situations in the future.

It also may aid effects to prevent stress-related disorders through screening and vigilance. According to Rajita Sinha, program director for the Yale Stress Center and professor of psychiatry at the Yale School of Medicine, the study is unique in analyzing a healthy human population. While past studies have demonstrated that stress reduces brain volume in animals and psychiatric samples of patients, Sinha said that the study is the first to show the impact of cumulative stress on the brain in otherwise healthy subjects. Learning: Stressed people use different strategies and brain regions. Why we fight: Men check out in stressful situations, while women show increased brain coordination when looking at angry faces. Employee Brain on Stress Can Quash Creativity And Competitive Edge. Stress Cortisol Connection. Basics - Brain Is a Co-Conspirator in a Vicious Stress Loop. The stressed prefrontal cortex. Left? Right! [Brain Behav Immun. 2008. Stress and the brain: Under pressure.

Central role of the brain in stress and ada... [Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010. Emotional stress can change brain function.